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MySQL Community Server 8.0.0-dmr has been released (part 1/3)




Dear MySQL users,

MySQL Server 8.0.0-dmr (Milestone Release) is a new version of the world's
most popular open source database. This is the first public milestone
release of MySQL 8.0.

[Since this is the first announcement of MySQL 8.0, it is longer than
 usual. Due to size limitations it is split in 3 parts. This is part 1.]

http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-development-cycle/en/development-milestone-releases.html

As with any other pre-production release, caution should be taken when
installing on production level systems or systems with critical data.

Note that 8.0.0-dmr includes all features in MySQL 5.7.

For information on installing MySQL 8.0.0-dmr on new servers, please see
the MySQL installation documentation at

  http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/installing.html

MySQL Server 8.0.0-dmr is available in source and binary form for a number of
platforms from the "Development Releases" selection of our download
pages at

  http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/

MySQL Server 8.0.0-dmr is also available from our repository for Linux
platforms, go here for details:

  http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/

Windows packages are available via the Installer for Windows:

  http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/

along with .ZIP (no-install) packages for more advanced needs. 

8.0.0-dmr also comes with a web installer as an alternative to the full
installer.

The web installer doesn't come bundled with any actual products
and instead relies on download-on-demand to fetch only the
products you choose to install. This makes the initial download
much smaller but increases install time as the individual products
will need to be downloaded.

We welcome and appreciate your feedback, bug reports, bug fixes,
patches, etc.:

  http://bugs.mysql.com/report.php

The following section lists the changes in MySQL 8.0.0-dmr since 5.7.

  http://dev.mysql.com/doc/relnotes/mysql/8.0/en/news-8.0.0.html

Enjoy!


==============================================================================
Changes in MySQL 8.0.0 (2016-09-12, Development Milestone Release)

   Note

   This is a milestone release, for use at your own risk.
   Significant development changes take place in milestone
   releases and you may encounter compatibility issues, such as
   data format changes that require attention in addition to the
   usual procedure of running mysql_upgrade. For example, you
   may find it necessary to dump your data with mysqldump before
   the upgrade and reload it afterward.

     * Account Management Notes

     * C API Notes

     * Character Set Support

     * Compilation Notes

     * Component Notes

     * Configuration Notes

     * Data Dictionary Notes

     * Data Type Notes

     * Doxygen Notes

     * Optimizer Notes

     * Packaging Notes

     * Parser Notes

     * Performance Schema Notes

     * Security Notes

     * Spatial Data Support

     * Test Suite Notes

     * Functionality Added or Changed

     * Bugs Fixed

   Account Management Notes

     * MySQL now supports roles, which are named collections of
       privileges. Roles can be created and dropped. Roles can
       have privileges granted to and revoked from them. Roles
       can be granted to and revoked from user accounts. The
       active applicable roles for an account can be selected
       from among those granted to the account, and can be
       changed during sessions for that account. For more
       information, see Roles
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/roles.html).

     * The grant tables in the mysql system database are now
       InnoDB (transactional) tables. Previously, these were
       MyISAM (nontransactional) tables. This change applies to
       these tables: user, db, tables_priv, columns_priv,
       procs_priv, proxies_priv.
       The change of grant table storage engine underlies an
       accompanying change to the behavior of account-management
       statements. Previously, an account-management statement
       that named multiple users could succeed for some users
       and fail for others. Now, each statement is transactional
       and either succeeds for all named users or rolls back and
       has no effect if any error occurs. The statement is not
       written to the binary log unless it succeeds. This
       behavior applies to these statements: ALTER USER, CREATE
       ROLE, CREATE USER, DROP ROLE, DROP USER, GRANT, RENAME
       USER, REVOKE. (SET PASSWORD is not listed. It applies to
       at most one user and was effectively transactional
       already.)
       If you upgrade to this MySQL release from an earlier
       version, you must run mysql_upgrade (and restart the
       server) to incorporate these changes into the mysql
       system database.
       Note
       If MySQL is upgraded from an older version but the grant
       tables have not been upgraded from MyISAM to InnoDB, the
       server considers them read only and account-management
       statements produce an error.
       Due to the change of storage engine from MyISAM to
       InnoDB, SELECT without ORDER BY on grant tables can
       produce different row orders than previously. However,
       SELECT without ORDER BY is not guaranteed to produce any
       particular order, so this is not an incompatibility as
       such. Rather, it is an application design issue that must
       be addressed.

   C API Notes

     * The libmysqlclient shared library major version number is
       increased from 20 (used in MySQL 5.7) to 21 for MySQL
       8.0. (Bug #77600, Bug #21363863)

   Character Set Support

     * The utf8mb4 Unicode character set has a new general
       collation named utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci. utf8mb4 also has
       several new language-specific collations with
       characteristics similar to utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci except that
       language-specific rules take precedence where applicable.
       The language-specific collations are indicated by ISO
       639-1 language codes in the collation name, as shown in
       the following table. In two cases the language code has
       an additional item that denotes a variant (German phone
       book order, Traditional Spanish).

       Table 1 utf8mb4 UCA 9.0.0 Collations

              Language                  Collation
       Croatian                utf8mb4_hr_0900_ai_ci
       Czech                   utf8mb4_cs_0900_ai_ci
       Danish                  utf8mb4_da_0900_ai_ci
       Esperanto               utf8mb4_eo_0900_ai_ci
       Estonian                utf8mb4_et_0900_ai_ci
       German phone book order utf8mb4_de_pb_0900_ai_ci
       Hungarian               utf8mb4_hu_0900_ai_ci
       Icelandic               utf8mb4_is_0900_ai_ci
       Latvian                 utf8mb4_lv_0900_ai_ci
       Lithuanian              utf8mb4_lt_0900_ai_ci
       Polish                  utf8mb4_pl_0900_ai_ci
       Classical Latin         utf8mb4_la_0900_ai_ci
       Romanian                utf8mb4_ro_0900_ai_ci
       Slovak                  utf8mb4_sk_0900_ai_ci
       Slovenian               utf8mb4_sl_0900_ai_ci
       Modern Spanish          utf8mb4_es_0900_ai_ci
       Traditional Spanish     utf8mb4_es_trad_0900_ai_ci
       Swedish                 utf8mb4_sv_0900_ai_ci
       Turkish                 utf8mb4_tr_0900_ai_ci
       Vietnamese              utf8mb4_vi_0900_ai_ci

       utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci also works as an accent insensitive,
       case insensitive collation for the languages in the
       following table.

       Table 2 Languages for Which utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci is
       Suitable

             Language Name       Language Code
       German (dictionary order) de
       English                   en
       French                    fr
       Irish Gaelic              ga
       Indonesian                id
       Italian                   it
       Luxembourgian             lb
       Malay                     ms
       Dutch                     nl
       Portuguese                pt
       Swahili                   sw
       Zulu                      zu

       utf8mb4_da_0900_ai_ci also works as an accent
       insensitive, case insensitive collation for the languages
       in the following table.

       Table 3 Languages for Which utf8mb4_da_0900_ai_ci is
       Suitable

         Language Name   Language Code
       Norwegian         no
       Norwegian Bokmål  nb
       Norwegian Nynorsk nn
       The nonlanguage-specific utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci and
       language-specific utf8mb4_LANG_0900_ai_ci Unicode
       collations each have these characteristics:

          + The collation is based on Unicode Collation
            Algorithm (UCA) 9.0.0 (_0900), is accent insensitive
            (_ai), and case insensitive (_ci).

          + The collation works for all characters in the range
            [U+0, U+10FFFF].

          + If the collation is not language specific, it sorts
            all characters, including supplemental characters,
            in default order (described following). If the
            collation is language specific, it sorts characters
            of the language correctly according to
            language-specific rules, and characters not in the
            language in default order.

          + By default, the collation sorts characters having a
            code point listed in the DUCET table (Default
            Unicode Collation Element Table) according to the
            weight value assigned in the table. The collation
            sorts characters not having a code point listed in
            the DUCET table using their implicit weight value,
            which is constructed according to the UCA.

          + Characters in contraction sequences are treated as
            separate characters.

   Compilation Notes

     * CMake support now permits linking with the GNU gold
       linker if it is available; specify the -DUSE_LD_GOLD=1
       option. (Bug #23759968)

     * For building MySQL on Windows, the toolchain now prefers
       64-bit tools when possible (previously 32-bit). This
       speeds up linking and avoids issues related to limited
       address space with the 32-bit linker. (Bug #22900585)

     * The WITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS CMake option has been removed.
       MySQL builds are configured with all character sets by
       default now. Users who want fewer character sets can edit
       cmake/character_sets.cmake directly and recompile the
       server. (Bug #80005, Bug #22552125)

     * MySQL source code now permits and uses C++11 features. To
       enable a good level of C++11 support across all supported
       platforms, the following minimum compiler versions now
       apply:

          + GCC: 4.8 or higher

          + Clang: 3.4 or higher (Xcode 7 on OS X)

          + Solaris Studio: 12.4 or higher (Solaris client build
            only)

          + Visual Studio: 2015

          + CMake: On Windows, the required Visual Studio
            version results in a required CMake version of 3.2.3
            or higher
       On Solaris, the stlport library is no longer used. This
       makes the SUNPRO_CXX_LIBRARY CMake option obsolete, so it
       has been removed.

   Component Notes

     * MySQL Server now includes a component-based
       infrastructure for improving server extensibility:

          + A component provides services that are available to
            the server and other components. (With respect to
            service use, the server is a component, equal to
            other components.) Components interact with each
            other only through the services they provide.

          + The INSTALL COMPONENT and UNINSTALL COMPONENT
            statements provide an SQL interface for component
            manipulation at runtime.

          + A loader service registers installed components in
            the mysql.component system table, and installs
            registered components during the startup sequence
            for subsequent server restarts.
       For general information about the component
       infrastructure and its SQL-level interface, see Server
       Components
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/server-components.html).
       For information about the internal implementation
       of components, see
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/dev/mysql-server/.

   Configuration Notes

     * Incompatible Change; InnoDB: Prior to MySQL 8.0, enabling
       innodb_read_only did not prevent table creation for
       storage engines other than InnoDB. As of MySQL 8.0,
       enabling innodb_read_only prevents table creation for all
       storage engines. Table creation operations modify data
       dictionary tables in the mysql system database, but those
       tables use the InnoDB storage engine and cannot be
       modified if innodb_read_only is enabled. (Bug #21611899)

     * The hardcoded memory page size of 8KB for the
       memory-mapped transaction coordinator was too small for
       platforms such as ARM64 and PowerPC where the page size
       is much larger. The server now invokes a system call to
       get the page size of the current platform rather than
       using a hardcoded value. A consequence for the
       --log-tc-size option is that the minimum and default
       values are now 6 times the page size. Also, the value
       must be a multiple of the page size. Thanks to Alexey
       Kopytov for the patch. (Bug #23014086, Bug #80818)

     * MySQL now supports a SET PERSIST variant of SET statement
       syntax for making configuration changes at runtime that
       also persist across server restarts. Like SET GLOBAL, SET
       PERSIST is permitted for any global system variable that
       is dynamic (settable at runtime). The statement changes
       the runtime variable value, but also writes the variable
       setting to an option file named mysqld-auto.cnf in the
       data directory. At startup, the server processes this
       file after all other option files. For more information,
       see SET Syntax for Variable Assignment
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/set-variable.html).
       To make information available showing how each system
       variable was most recently set, the Performance Schema
       now includes a variables_info table that lists each
       system variable, and the source from which it got that
       value. See Performance Schema variables_info Table
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/variables-info-table.html).
       If you upgrade to this MySQL release from an earlier
       version, you must run mysql_upgrade (and restart the
       server) to incorporate this change into the Performance
       Schema.

     * The deprecated mysql_install_db program has been removed
       from MySQL distributions. Data directory initialization
       should be performed by invoking mysqld with the
       --initialize or --initialize-insecure option instead. In
       addition, the deprecated --bootstrap option for mysqld
       that was used by mysql_install_db has been removed, and
       the INSTALL_SCRIPTDIR CMake option that controlled the
       installation location for mysql_install_db has been
       removed.
       Version 1 test suite code previously was located in the
       mysql-test/lib/v1 directory of MySQL source
       distributions. This code used mysql_install_db and has
       been removed. The MYSQL_INSTALL_DB environment variable
       and a value of 1 for the MTR_VERSION environment variable
       are no longer supported.

   Data Dictionary Notes

     * Incompatible Change: MySQL Server now incorporates a
       global data dictionary containing information about
       database objects in transactional tables. In previous
       MySQL releases, dictionary data was stored in metadata
       files and nontransactional system tables.
       Important
       A data dictionary-enabled server entails some general
       operational differences; see Data Dictionary Usage
       Differences
(http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/data-dictionary-usage-differences.html).
       Also, for upgrades to MySQL 8.0
       from MySQL 5.7, the upgrade procedure differs somewhat
       from previous MySQL releases and requires that you verify
       the upgrade readiness of your installation by checking
       specific prerequisites. For more information, see
       Upgrading MySQL
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrading.html),
       particularly Verifying Upgrade Prerequisites for Your
       MySQL 5.7 Installation
(http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrading.html#upgrade-prerequisites).
       InnoDB continues to use its own data dictionary in the
       MySQL 8.0.0 release.
       The following list briefly describes the main
       implications of this change:

          + The .frm metadata files previously associated with
            base tables and views no longer exist. Metadata
            previously stored in .frm files is now stored in
            data dictionary tables.
            Similarly, trigger metadata previously stored in
            .TRG and .TRN files is stored in a data dictionary
            table and those files no longer exist.

          + With the removal of .frm files, the 64KB table
            definition size limit imposed by the .frm file
            structure is removed.

          + With the removal of .frm files, the
            INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES VERSION field now reports
            a hardcoded value of 10, which is the last .frm file
            version used in MySQL 5.7.

          + A new dictionary object cache that serves the MySQL
            data dictionary stores previously accessed data
            dictionary objects in memory to enable object reuse
            and minimize disk I/O. An LRU-based eviction
            strategy is used to evict least recently used
            objects from memory. The cache comprises several
            partitions that store different object types. For
            more information, see Dictionary Object Cache
  (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/data-dictionary-object-cache.html).

          + New internal data dictionary APIs enable the server,
            internal storage engines, and plugins to access and
            store data in the MySQL data dictionary. Internal
            data dictionary APIs are introduced for handling of
            schemas, tablespaces, tablespace files, tables,
            partitioned tables, table partition data, triggers,
            stored routines, events, table objects, views,
            character sets, and collations.

          + Data dictionary tables are invisible, but in most
            cases there are corresponding INFORMATION_SCHEMA
            tables that can be queried. Conceptually, the
            INFORMATION_SCHEMA provides a view through which
            MySQL exposes data dictionary metadata.
            INFORMATION_SCHEMA queries for database objects are
            now, in general, more efficient because they use
            information from data dictionary table rather than
            requiring directory or file scans under the data
            directory.
            A new system variable, information_schema_stats,
            controls whether to use column statistics cached in
            INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables or the latest statistics
            directly from storage engines.

          + The foreign_keys and foreign_key_column_usage tables
            now store foreign key information. The standard SQL
            way to obtain foreign key information is by using
            the INFORMATION_SCHEMA REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS and
            KEY_COLUMN_USAGE tables; these tables are now
            implemented as views on the foreign_keys,
            foreign_key_column_usage, and other data dictionary
            tables.
            For some foreign key errors, the server now produces
            more appropriate and more informative error
            messages.
            Note
            Incompatibility: Previously, MySQL supported foreign
            key names longer than 64 characters. Foreign key
            names as stored in the foreign_keys and
            foreign_key_column_usage tables are a maximum of 64
            characters, per the SQL standard, so longer foreign
            key names are no longer permitted.

          + Because the data dictionary provides information
            about database objects, the server no longer checks
            directory names in the data directory to find
            databases. Consequently, the --ignore-db-dir option
            and ignore_db_dirs system variable are extraneous
            and have been removed. Update system configurations
            and application programs accordingly.

          + System table changes:
               o Many system tables have been converted from
                 MyISAM (nontransactional) tables to InnoDB
                 (transactional) tables. For example, as
                 discussed elsewhere in these release notes, the
                 grant tables are now InnoDB tables. Other
                 examples follow.
               o The func table that stores user-defined
                 function information in the mysql system
                 database now is an InnoDB (transactional)
                 table. Previously, it was a MyISAM
                 (nontransactional) table.
                 In consequence of this change, CREATE FUNCTION
                 and DROP FUNCTION statements cause an implicit
                 commit, even when used for user-defined
                 functions (see Statements That Cause an
                 Implicit Commit
             (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/implicit-commit.html)).
                 Previously, they caused an
                 implicit commit when used for stored functions,
                 but not for user-defined functions.
               o Previously, information about stored routines
                 and events was stored in the proc and event
                 tables of the mysql system database. Those
                 tables are no longer used. Instead, information
                 about stored routines and events is stored in
                 the routines, events, and parameters data
                 dictionary tables in the mysql system database.
                 The old tables used the MyISAM
                 (nontransactional) storage engine. The new
                 tables use the InnoDB (transactional) engine.
                 Creating a stored routine that contained
                 illegal characters previously produced a
                 warning. This is now an error.
               o To permit access to system tables (for example,
                 time zone or log tables) to be distinguished
                 from access to nonsystem tables, the server
                 uses the Locking system tables and Opening
                 system tables thread states rather than the
                 System lock and Opening tables thread states.
                 See General Thread States
      (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/general-thread-states.html).

          + InnoDB changes:
               o Persistent InnoDB tablespaces now include
                 transactional storage for Serialized Dictionary
                 Information (SDI), which is metadata in
                 serialized form that describes objects such as
                 tables, columns, and indexes. Along with the
                 disappearance of .frm and trigger metadata
                 files, mentioned previously, you might notice
                 the appearance of .SDI files. These are
                 serialized data information files. SDI
                 transactional storage is reserved for an
                 in-progress feature not yet fully implemented.
               o A new command-line utility, ibd2sdi, is used to
                 extract serialized dictionary information (SDI)
                 from persistent InnoDB tablespaces. SDI data is
                 not present in persistent InnoDB tablespaces in
                 this release. The ibd2sdi utility is reserved
                 for future use.
               o InnoDB startup code was refactored to support
                 MySQL initialization changes related to the
                 MySQL data dictionary feature.

          + Upgrade and downgrade implications:
               o To upgrade to MySQL 8.0 from MySQL 5.7, you
                 must perform the upgrade procedure described at
                 Upgrading MySQL
                 (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/upgrading.html).
               o Downgrading from MySQL 8.0 to MySQL 5.7 is only
                 supported using the logical downgrade method (a
                 mysqldump downgrade). In-place downgrades are
                 not supported.
       (Bug #80481, Bug #22811659)

   Data Type Notes

     * Bit functions and operators comprise BIT_COUNT(),
       BIT_AND(), BIT_OR(), BIT_XOR(), &, |, ^, ~, <<, and >>.
       Prior to MySQL 8.0, bit functions and operators required
       BIGINT (64-bit integer) arguments and returned BIGINT
       values. Non-BIGINT arguments were converted to BIGINT
       prior to performing the operation and truncation could
       occur. Now bit functions and operators permit binary
       string type arguments (BINARY, VARBINARY, and the BLOB
       types) and return a value of like type, which enables
       them to take arguments and produce return values larger
       than 64 bits.
       Permitting binary arguments to bit functions and
       operators makes it easier not only to manipulate larger
       values, but to perform operations on certain types of
       data, such as UUID and IPv6 values.
       An implication of this change in behavior is that bit
       operations on binary arguments might produce a different
       result in MySQL 8.0 than in 5.7. For more information
       about the change, including how to prepare in MySQL 5.7
       for potential incompatibilities between MySQL 5.7 and
       8.0, see Bit Functions and Operators
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/bit-functions.html),
       in MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/).

   Doxygen Notes

     * The MySQL source code has been updated to use Doxygen for
       the internal documentation. The generated content for
       this milestone is available at
       http://dev.mysql.com/doc/dev/mysql-server/8.0.0. This is
       a work in progress.

   Optimizer Notes

     * InnoDB: The storage engine interface now enables the
       optimizer to provide information about the size of the
       record buffer to be used for scans that the optimizer
       estimates will read multiple rows. The buffer size can
       vary based on the size of the estimate. InnoDB uses this
       variable-size buffering capability to reduce the overhead
       of latching and B-tree navigation. Previously, InnoDB
       used a small, fixed-size buffer.

     * The optimizer now supports table-level hints for
       specifying whether derived tables or views should be
       merged into the outer query block rather than
       materialized using an internal temporary table. Examples:
SELECT /*+ MERGE(dt) */ * FROM (SELECT * FROM t1) AS dt;
SELECT /*+ NO_MERGE(dt) */ * FROM (SELECT * FROM t1) AS dt;

       For more information, see Optimizer Hints
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/optimizer-hints.html).
       (Bug #79554, Bug #22328100)

     * MySQL now supports invisible indexes. An invisible index
       is not used by the optimizer at all, but is otherwise
       maintained normally. Indexes are visible by default.
       Invisible indexes make it possible to test the effect of
       removing an index on query performance, without making a
       destructive change that must be undone should the index
       turn out to be required. This feature applies to InnoDB
       tables, for indexes other than primary keys.
       To control whether an index is invisible explicitly for a
       new index, use a VISIBLE or INVISIBLE keyword as part of
       the index definition for CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX, or
       ALTER TABLE. To alter the invisibility of an existing
       index, use a VISIBLE or INVISIBLE keyword with the ALTER
       TABLE ... ALTER INDEX operation. For more information,
       see Invisible Indexes
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/invisible-indexes.html).

     * The mysql system database now contains a column_stats
       table designed to store statistics about column values.
       For more information, see Optimizer Statistics
       (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/optimizer-statistics.html).

   Packaging Notes

     * Development milestone releases in previous MySQL series
       were numbered using a suffix of -mN, to indicate
       development milestone N. In MySQL 8.0, development
       releases use the suffix -dmr. For example, this release
       of MySQL is numbered 8.0.0-dmr. (Bug #80408, Bug
       #22748154)

     * As a consequence of the use of C++11 features described
       elsewhere in these release notes, the following packaging
       changes have been made:

          + Support for Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 and Oracle
            Linux 5 RPMs has been dropped

          + Generic binary tarball builds have been moved to Red
            Hat Enterprise Linux 6

   Parser Notes

     * The parser rules for CREATE TABLE were refactored to be
       context independent and improve maintainability and
       extendibility. Several user-visible effects resulted from
       this work:

          + For generated columns, including NOT NULL NULL
            resulted in a column that included the NOT NULL
            attribute, which differed from nongenerated columns.
            Such definitions now use the final attribute NULL,
            resulting in a nullable column (consistent with
            nongenerated columns).

          + CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE no longer permits multiple
            instances of TEMPORARY.

          + Previously, PARSE_GCOL_EXPR was a keyword and could
            not be used as a label in stored programs. It is no
            longer a keyword and can be used as a label.

          + Messages for some syntax errors are more precise
            with respect to the location of the error within the
            statement.

     * The parser rules for SELECT and UNION were refactored to
       be more consistent (the same SELECT syntax applies
       uniformly in each such context) and reduce duplication.
       Several user-visible effects resulted from this work:

          + NATURAL JOIN permits an optional INNER keyword
            (NATURAL INNER JOIN), in compliance with standard
            SQL.

          + Right-deep joins without parentheses are permitted
            (for example, ... JOIN ... JOIN ... ON ... ON), in
            compliance with standard SQL.

          + The parser accepts parentheses around query
            expressions. For example, (SELECT ... UNION SELECT
            ...) is permitted.

          + The parser better conforms to the documented
            permitted placement of the SQL_CACHE and
            SQL_NO_CACHE query modifiers.

          + Left-hand nesting of unions, previously permitted
            only in subqueries, is now permitted in top-level
            statements. For example, this statement is now
            accepted as valid:
(SELECT 1 UNION SELECT 1) UNION SELECT 1;

[...continued...]

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