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[PATCH v4 01/24] docs: fpga: add a document for FPGA Device Feature List (DFL) Framework Overview




Add a document for FPGA Device Feature List (DFL) Framework Overview.

Signed-off-by: Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@xxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Signed-off-by: Wu Hao <hao.wu@xxxxxxxxx>
---
v2: added FME fpga-mgr/bridge/region platform driver to driver organization.
    updated open discussion per current implementation.
    fixed some typos.
v3: use FPGA base region as container device instead of fpga-dev class.
    split common enumeration code from pcie driver to functions exposed by
    device feature list framework.
    update FME performance reporting which supports both integrated (iperf/)
    and discrete (dperf/) FPGA solutions.
v4: rename this doc to Device Feature List (DFL) Framework Overview (dfl.txt)
    add Device Feature List introduction and re-organize the content.
    add description for port reset, bitstream_id/metadata and etc.
---
 Documentation/fpga/dfl.txt | 382 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 382 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Documentation/fpga/dfl.txt

diff --git a/Documentation/fpga/dfl.txt b/Documentation/fpga/dfl.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..28e4e22
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/fpga/dfl.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,382 @@
+===============================================================================
+              FPGA Device Feature List (DFL) Framework Overview
+-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+                Enno Luebbers <enno.luebbers@xxxxxxxxx>
+                Xiao Guangrong <guangrong.xiao@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
+                Wu Hao <hao.wu@xxxxxxxxx>
+
+The Device Feature List (DFL) FPGA framework (and drivers according to this
+this framework) hides the very details of low layer hardwares and provides
+unified interfaces for userspace applications to configure, enumerate, open
+and access FPGA accelerators on platforms implemented the DFL in the device
+memory, and enables system level management functions such as FPGA
+reconfiguration, power management and virtualization.
+
+Device Feature List (DFL) Overview
+==================================
+Device Feature List (DFL) defines a link list of feature headers within the
+device MMIO space to provide an extensible way of adding features. Software can
+walk through these predefined data structures to enumerate FPGA features:
+FPGA Interface Unit (FIU), Accelerated Function Unit (AFU) and Private Features,
+as illustrated below:
+
+    Header            Header            Header            Header
+ +----------+  +-->+----------+  +-->+----------+  +-->+----------+
+ |   Type   |  |   |  Type    |  |   |  Type    |  |   |  Type    |
+ |   FIU    |  |   | Private  |  |   | Private  |  |   | Private  |
+ +----------+  |   | Feature  |  |   | Feature  |  |   | Feature  |
+ | Next_DFH |--+   +----------+  |   +----------+  |   +----------+
+ +----------+      | Next_DFH |--+   | Next_DFH |--+   | Next_DFH |--> NULL
+ |    ID    |      +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
+ +----------+      |    ID    |      |    ID    |      |    ID    |
+ | Next_AFU |--+   +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
+ +----------+  |   | Feature  |      | Feature  |      | Feature  |
+ | Feature  |  |   | Region   |      | Region   |      | Region   |
+ | Region   |  |   +----------+      +----------+      +----------+
+ +----------+  |      Header
+               +-->+----------+
+                   |   Type   |
+                   |   AFU    |
+                   +----------+
+                   |   GUID   |
+                   +----------+
+                   |  Feature |
+                   |  Region  |
+                   +----------+
+
+FPGA Interface Unit (FIU) represents a standalone functional unit for the
+interface to FPGA, e.g the FPGA Management Engine (FME) and Port. (more
+descriptions on FME and Port in later sections). Accelerated Function Unit (AFU)
+represents a FPGA programmable region, and usually connects to a FIU as its
+child as illustrated above. Private Features are sub features of the FIUs/AFUs,
+they could be various function blocks with different ID, but they are linked to
+one list via the Next Device Feature Header (DFH) pointer as children. The
+registers for actual functions are grouped as feature regions which always
+follow the common header registers. The feature region located after the FIU
+header, is named as header register set for given FIU type. e.g FME Header
+Register Set.
+
+This Device Feature List provides a way of linking features together, it's
+convenient for software to locate each feature by walking through this list,
+and can be implemented in register regions of any FPGA device.
+
+FIU - FME (FPGA Management Engine)
+==================================
+The FPGA Management Engine performs power and thermal management, error
+reporting, reconfiguration, performance reporting for integrated and discrete
+solution, and other infrastructure functions. Each FPGA device only has one FME.
+
+User-space applications can acquire exclusive access to the FME using open(),
+and release it using close().
+
+The following functions are exposed through ioctls:
+
+ Get driver API version (FPGA_GET_API_VERSION)
+ Check for extensions (FPGA_CHECK_EXTENSION)
+ Assign port to PF (*FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN)
+ Release port from PF (*FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE)
+ Program bitstream (FPGA_FME_PORT_PR)
+
+*FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN/RELEASE are only used for FPGA virtualization. Please
+refer to later section "FPGA Virtualization - PCIe" for more details.
+
+More functions are exposed through sysfs
+(/sys/class/fpga_region/regionX/dfl-fme.n/):
+
+ Read bitstream ID (bitstream_id)
+     bitstream_id indicates version of the blue bitstream (static FPGA region).
+
+ Read bitstream metadata (bitstream_metadata)
+     bistream_metadata includes more detailed information of the blue bitstream
+     (static FPGA region), e.g synthesis date and seed.
+
+ Read number of ports (ports_num)
+     one FPGA device may have more than 1 port, this sysfs interface indicates
+     how many ports the FPGA device has.
+
+ Read socket ID (socket_id)
+     socket_id is only used in integrated solution, to indicate which socket
+     the FPGA device belongs to.
+
+ Read performance counters (iperf/ and dperf/)
+ Power management (power_mgmt/)
+ Thermal management (thermal_mgmt/)
+ Error reporting (errors/)
+
+FIU - PORT
+==========
+A port represents the interface between the static FPGA fabric (the "blue
+bitstream") and a partially reconfigurable region containing an AFU (the "green
+bitstream"). It controls the communication from SW to the accelerator and
+exposes features such as reset and debug. Each FPGA device may have more than
+1 port.
+
+AFU
+===
+An AFU is attached to a port FIU and exposes a fixed length MMIO region to be
+used for accelerator-specific control registers.
+
+User-space applications can acquire exclusive access to an AFU attached to a
+port by using open() on the port device node, and release it using close().
+
+The following functions are exposed through ioctls:
+
+ Get driver API version (FPGA_GET_API_VERSION)
+ Check for extensions (FPGA_CHECK_EXTENSION)
+ Get port info (FPGA_PORT_GET_INFO)
+ Get MMIO region info (FPGA_PORT_GET_REGION_INFO)
+ Map DMA buffer (FPGA_PORT_DMA_MAP)
+ Unmap DMA buffer (FPGA_PORT_DMA_UNMAP)
+ Reset AFU (*FPGA_PORT_RESET)
+ Enable UMsg (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_ENABLE)
+ Disable UMsg (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_DISABLE)
+ Set UMsg mode (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_SET_MODE)
+ Set UMsg base address (FPGA_PORT_UMSG_SET_BASE_ADDR)
+
+*FPGA_PORT_RESET: reset the FPGA Port and its AFU. Userspace can do Port reset
+at any time, e.g during DMA or Partial Reconfiguration. But it should never
+cause any system level issue, only functional failure (e.g DMA or PR operation
+failure) and be recoverable from the failure.
+
+User-space applications can also mmap() accelerator MMIO regions.
+
+More functions are exposed through sysfs:
+(/sys/class/fpga_region/<regionX>/<dfl-port.m>/):
+
+ Read Accelerator GUID (afu_id)
+ Error reporting (errors/)
+
+DFL Framework Overview
+======================
+
+         +----------+    +--------+ +--------+ +--------+
+         |   FME    |    |  AFU   | |  AFU   | |  AFU   |
+         |  Module  |    | Module | | Module | | Module |
+         +----------+    +--------+ +--------+ +--------+
+                 +-----------------------+
+                 | FPGA Container Device |    Device Feature List
+                 |  (FPGA Base Region)   |         Framework
+                 +-----------------------+
+--------------------------------------------------------------------
+               +----------------------------+
+               |   FPGA Bus Device Module   |
+               | (e.g PCIE/Platform Device) |
+               +----------------------------+
+                 +------------------------+
+                 |  FPGA Hardware Device  |
+                 +------------------------+
+
+DFL Framework in kernel provides common interfaces to create container device
+(FPGA base region), discover feature devices and their private features from the
+given Device Feature Lists, and create platform devices for feature devices
+(e.g FME, Port and AFU) with related resources under the container device. It
+also abstracts operations for the private features and exposes common ops to
+feature device drivers.
+
+The FPGA Bus Device could be different devices e.g PCIe device, platform device
+and etc. Its driver is always loaded first once the device is detected on its
+own bus. This driver plays an infrastructural role in the driver architecture.
+It locates the DFLs in the device memory, handles them and related resources
+to common interfaces from DFL framework for enumeration. (Please refer to
+drivers/fpga/dfl.c for detailed enumeration APIs).
+
+The FPGA Management Engine (FME) driver is a platform driver which is loaded
+automatically after FME platform device creation from the PCIE driver. It
+provides the key features for FPGA management, including:
+
+	a) Power and thermal management, error reporting, performance reporting
+	   and other infrastructure functions. Users can access these functions
+	   via sysfs interfaces exposed by FME driver.
+	b) Partial Reconfiguration. The FME driver creates FPGA manager, FPGA
+	   bridges and FPGA regions during PR sub feature initialization; Once
+	   it receives an FPGA_FME_PORT_PR ioctl from user, it invokes the
+	   common interface function from FPGA Region to complete the partial
+	   reconfiguration of the bitstream to the given port.
+	c) Port management for virtualization. The FME driver introduces two
+	   ioctls, FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE (releases given port from PF) and
+	   FPGA_FME_PORT_ASSIGN (assigns the port back to PF). Once the port is
+	   released from the PF, it can be assigned to the VF through the SRIOV
+	   interfaces provided by PCIE driver. (Refer to "FPGA virtualization"
+	   for more details).
+
+Similar to the the FME driver, the FPGA Accelerated Function Unit (AFU) driver
+is probed once the AFU platform device is created. The main function of this
+module is to provide an interface for userspace applications to access the
+individual accelerators, including basic reset control on port, AFU MMIO region
+export, dma buffer mapping service, UMsg notification, and remote debug
+functions (see above).
+
+After feature platform devices creation, matched platform drivers will be loaded
+automatically to handle different functionalities. Please refer to next sections
+for detailed information on functional units which has been already implemented
+under this DFL framework.
+
+Partial Reconfiguration
+=======================
+As mentioned above, accelerators can be reconfigured through partial
+reconfiguration of a green bitstream file (GBS). The green bitstream must have
+been generated for the exact blue bitstream and targeted reconfigurable region
+(port) of the FPGA; otherwise, the reconfiguration operation will fail and
+possibly cause system instability. This compatibility can be checked by
+comparing the interface ID noted in the GBS header against the interface ID
+exposed by the FME through sysfs (see above). This check is usually done by
+user-space before calling the reconfiguration IOCTL.
+
+FPGA virtualization - PCIe
+==========================
+This section describes the virtualization support on DFL based FPGA device to
+enable accessing an accelerator from applications running in a virtual machine
+(VM). This section only describes the PCIe based FPGA device with SRIOV support.
+
+Features supported by the particular FPGA device are exposed through Device
+Feature Lists, as illustrated below:
+
+  +-------------------------------+  +-------------+
+  |              PF               |  |     VF      |
+  +-------------------------------+  +-------------+
+      ^            ^         ^              ^
+      |            |         |              |
++-----|------------|---------|--------------|-------+
+|     |            |         |              |       |
+|  +-----+     +-------+ +-------+      +-------+   |
+|  | FME |     | Port0 | | Port1 |      | Port2 |   |
+|  +-----+     +-------+ +-------+      +-------+   |
+|                  ^         ^              ^       |
+|                  |         |              |       |
+|              +-------+ +------+       +-------+   |
+|              |  AFU  | |  AFU |       |  AFU  |   |
+|              +-------+ +------+       +-------+   |
+|                                                   |
+|                 FPGA PCIe Device                  |
++---------------------------------------------------+
+
+FME is always accessed through the physical function (PF).
+
+Ports (and related AFUs) are accessed via PF by default, but could be exposed
+through virtual function (VF) devices via PCIe SRIOV. Each VF only contains
+1 Port and 1 AFU for isolation. Users could assign individual VFs (accelerators)
+created via PCIe SRIOV interface, to virtual machines.
+
+The driver organization in virtualization case is illustrated below:
+
+  +-------++------++------+             |
+  | FME   || FME  || FME  |             |
+  | FPGA  || FPGA || FPGA |             |
+  |Manager||Bridge||Region|             |
+  +-------++------++------+             |
+  +-----------------------+  +--------+ |             +--------+
+  |          FME          |  |  AFU   | |             |  AFU   |
+  |         Module        |  | Module | |             | Module |
+  +-----------------------+  +--------+ |             +--------+
+        +-----------------------+       |       +-----------------------+
+        | FPGA Container Device |       |       | FPGA Container Device |
+        |  (FPGA Base Region)   |       |       |  (FPGA Base Region)   |
+        +-----------------------+       |       +-----------------------+
+          +------------------+          |         +------------------+
+          | FPGA PCIE Module |          | Virtual | FPGA PCIE Module |
+          +------------------+   Host   | Machine +------------------+
+ -------------------------------------- | ------------------------------
+           +---------------+            |          +---------------+
+           | PCI PF Device |            |          | PCI VF Device |
+           +---------------+            |          +---------------+
+
+FPGA PCIe device driver is always loaded first once a FPGA PCIe PF or VF device
+is detected. It:
+
+	a) finish enumeration on both FPGA PCIe PF and VF device using common
+	   interfaces from DFL framework.
+	b) supports SRIOV.
+
+The FME device driver plays a management role in this driver architecture, it
+provides ioctls to release Port from PF and assign Port to PF. After release
+a port from PF, then it's safe to expose this port through a VF via PCIe SRIOV
+sysfs interface.
+
+To enable accessing an accelerator from applications running in a VM, the
+respective AFU's port needs to be assigned to a VF using the following steps:
+
+	a) The PF owns all AFU ports by default. Any port that needs to be
+	   reassigned to a VF must first be released through the
+	   FPGA_FME_PORT_RELEASE ioctl on the FME device.
+
+	b) Once N ports are released from PF, then user can use command below
+	   to enable SRIOV and VFs. Each VF owns only one Port with AFU.
+
+	   echo N > $PCI_DEVICE_PATH/sriov_numvfs
+
+	c) Pass through the VFs to VMs
+
+	d) The AFU under VF is accessible from applications in VM (using the
+	   same driver inside the VF).
+
+Note that an FME can't be assigned to a VF, thus PR and other management
+functions are only available via the PF.
+
+Device enumeration
+==================
+This section introduces how applications enumerate the fpga device from
+the sysfs hierarchy under /sys/class/fpga_region.
+
+In the example below, two DFL based FPGA devices are installed in the host. Each
+fpga device has one FME and two ports (AFUs).
+
+FPGA regions are created under /sys/class/fpga_region/
+
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region0
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region1
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region2
+	...
+
+Application needs to search each regionX folder, if feature device is found,
+(e.g "dfl-port.n" or "dfl-fme.m" is found), then it's the base
+fpga region which represents the FPGA device.
+
+Each base region has one FME and two ports (AFUs) as child devices:
+
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region0/dfl-fme.0
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region0/dfl-port.0
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region0/dfl-port.1
+	...
+
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region3/dfl-fme.1
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region3/dfl-port.2
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/region3/dfl-port.3
+	...
+
+In general, the FME/AFU sysfs interfaces are named as follows:
+
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/<regionX>/<dfl-fme.n>/
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/<regionX>/<dfl-port.m>/
+
+with 'n' consecutively numbering all FMEs and 'm' consecutively numbering all
+ports.
+
+The device nodes used for ioctl() or mmap() can be referenced through:
+
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/<regionX>/<dfl-fme.n>/dev
+	/sys/class/fpga_region/<regionX>/<dfl-port.n>/dev
+
+Add new FIUs support
+====================
+It's possible that developers made some new function blocks (FIUs) under this
+DFL framework, then new platform device driver needs to be developed for the
+new feature dev (FIU) following the same way as existing feature dev drivers
+(e.g FME and Port/AFU platform device driver). Besides that, it requires
+modification on DFL framework enumeration code too, for new FIU type detection
+and related platform devices creation.
+
+Add new private features support
+================================
+In some cases, we may need to add some new private features to existing FIUs
+(e.g FME or Port). Developers don't need to touch enumeration code in DFL
+framework, as each private feature will be parsed automatically, and related
+mmio resources can be found under FIU platform device created by DFL framework.
+Developer only needs to provide a sub feature driver with matched feature id.
+FME Partial Reconfiguration Sub Feature driver (see drivers/fpga/dfl-fme-pr.c)
+could be a reference.
+
+Open discussion
+===============
+FME driver exports one ioctl (FPGA_FME_PORT_PR) for partial reconfiguration to
+user now. In the future, if unified user interfaces for reconfiguration are
+added, FME driver should switch to them from ioctl interface.
-- 
2.7.4