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[PATCH v2 1/3] *.[ch]: remove extern from function declarations using spatch




There has been a push to remove extern from function declarations.
Remove some instances of "extern" for function declarations which are
caught by Coccinelle. Note that Coccinelle has some difficulty with
processing functions with `__attribute__` or varargs so some `extern`
declarations are left behind to be dealt with in a future patch.

This was the Coccinelle patch used:

	@@
	type T;
	identifier f;
	@@
	- extern
	  T f(...);

and it was run with:

	$ spatch --sp-file contrib/coccinelle/noextern.cocci --dir . --include-headers --in-place

Signed-off-by: Denton Liu <liu.denton@xxxxxxxxx>
---
 advice.h                    |   2 +-
 archive.h                   |  14 +-
 bisect.h                    |  12 +-
 blame.h                     |   2 +-
 branch.h                    |  12 +-
 builtin.h                   | 252 +++++++++++++-------------
 bulk-checkin.h              |   6 +-
 cache.h                     | 340 ++++++++++++++++++------------------
 checkout.h                  |   2 +-
 column.h                    |  12 +-
 commit.h                    |  70 ++++----
 compat/mingw.c              |   2 +-
 compat/mingw.h              |   6 +-
 compat/nedmalloc/malloc.c.h |   4 +-
 compat/obstack.h            |   8 +-
 compat/poll/poll.h          |   2 +-
 compat/regex/regex.h        |  28 +--
 compat/win32/pthread.h      |   6 +-
 config.h                    | 182 +++++++++----------
 connect.h                   |  20 +--
 csum-file.h                 |  20 +--
 decorate.h                  |   4 +-
 delta.h                     |  10 +-
 dir.h                       |  70 ++++----
 exec-cmd.h                  |  14 +-
 fmt-merge-msg.h             |   2 +-
 fsmonitor.h                 |  14 +-
 gettext.h                   |   8 +-
 git-compat-util.h           | 108 ++++++------
 grep.h                      |  22 +--
 hashmap.h                   |  30 ++--
 help.h                      |  30 ++--
 http.h                      |  52 +++---
 kwset.h                     |  10 +-
 line-log.h                  |  16 +-
 lockfile.h                  |  10 +-
 ls-refs.h                   |   2 +-
 mailinfo.h                  |   6 +-
 merge-blobs.h               |   2 +-
 object-store.h              |  16 +-
 object.h                    |  12 +-
 oidmap.h                    |  10 +-
 pack.h                      |  24 +--
 packfile.h                  |  74 ++++----
 path.h                      |   2 +-
 pkt-line.h                  |   6 +-
 ppc/sha1.c                  |   2 +-
 prio-queue.h                |  10 +-
 protocol.h                  |   6 +-
 quote.h                     |  30 ++--
 reachable.h                 |   4 +-
 reflog-walk.h               |  16 +-
 refs.h                      |   2 +-
 remote.h                    |  12 +-
 replace-object.h            |   2 +-
 resolve-undo.h              |  14 +-
 run-command.h               |   6 +-
 serve.h                     |   4 +-
 sha1-lookup.h               |   2 +-
 streaming.h                 |   8 +-
 string-list.h               |   2 +-
 sub-process.h               |   2 +-
 submodule-config.h          |  20 +--
 tag.h                       |  14 +-
 tempfile.h                  |  26 +--
 trace.h                     |  16 +-
 transport.h                 |   4 +-
 tree-walk.h                 |   4 +-
 upload-pack.h               |   4 +-
 url.h                       |  16 +-
 urlmatch.h                  |   4 +-
 utf8.h                      |   2 +-
 varint.h                    |   4 +-
 vcs-svn/sliding_window.h    |   2 +-
 vcs-svn/svndiff.h           |   2 +-
 worktree.h                  |  20 +--
 xdiff-interface.h           |  10 +-
 77 files changed, 913 insertions(+), 913 deletions(-)

diff --git a/advice.h b/advice.h
index f875f8cd8d..4a2052eecf 100644
--- a/advice.h
+++ b/advice.h
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ int git_default_advice_config(const char *var, const char *value);
 __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
 void advise(const char *advice, ...);
 int error_resolve_conflict(const char *me);
-extern void NORETURN die_resolve_conflict(const char *me);
+void NORETURN die_resolve_conflict(const char *me);
 void NORETURN die_conclude_merge(void);
 void detach_advice(const char *new_name);
 
diff --git a/archive.h b/archive.h
index 21ac010699..5afc11d0f8 100644
--- a/archive.h
+++ b/archive.h
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ struct archiver_args {
 
 /* main api */
 
-extern int write_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
+int write_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
 			 struct repository *repo,
 			 const char *name_hint, int remote);
 
@@ -39,19 +39,19 @@ struct archiver {
 	unsigned flags;
 	void *data;
 };
-extern void register_archiver(struct archiver *);
+void register_archiver(struct archiver *);
 
-extern void init_tar_archiver(void);
-extern void init_zip_archiver(void);
-extern void init_archivers(void);
+void init_tar_archiver(void);
+void init_zip_archiver(void);
+void init_archivers(void);
 
 typedef int (*write_archive_entry_fn_t)(struct archiver_args *args,
 					const struct object_id *oid,
 					const char *path, size_t pathlen,
 					unsigned int mode);
 
-extern int write_archive_entries(struct archiver_args *args, write_archive_entry_fn_t write_entry);
-extern void *object_file_to_archive(const struct archiver_args *args,
+int write_archive_entries(struct archiver_args *args, write_archive_entry_fn_t write_entry);
+void *object_file_to_archive(const struct archiver_args *args,
 				    const char *path, const struct object_id *oid,
 				    unsigned int mode, enum object_type *type,
 				    unsigned long *sizep);
diff --git a/bisect.h b/bisect.h
index 821d16e4dd..81ac43baa7 100644
--- a/bisect.h
+++ b/bisect.h
@@ -11,10 +11,10 @@ struct repository;
  * Otherwise, it will be either all non-SAMETREE commits or the single
  * best commit, as chosen by `find_all`.
  */
-extern void find_bisection(struct commit_list **list, int *reaches, int *all,
+void find_bisection(struct commit_list **list, int *reaches, int *all,
 			   int find_all);
 
-extern struct commit_list *filter_skipped(struct commit_list *list,
+struct commit_list *filter_skipped(struct commit_list *list,
 					  struct commit_list **tried,
 					  int show_all,
 					  int *count,
@@ -31,14 +31,14 @@ struct rev_list_info {
 	const char *header_prefix;
 };
 
-extern int bisect_next_all(struct repository *r,
+int bisect_next_all(struct repository *r,
 			   const char *prefix,
 			   int no_checkout);
 
-extern int estimate_bisect_steps(int all);
+int estimate_bisect_steps(int all);
 
-extern void read_bisect_terms(const char **bad, const char **good);
+void read_bisect_terms(const char **bad, const char **good);
 
-extern int bisect_clean_state(void);
+int bisect_clean_state(void);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/blame.h b/blame.h
index be3a895043..d6c4cc63f5 100644
--- a/blame.h
+++ b/blame.h
@@ -177,6 +177,6 @@ struct blame_entry *blame_entry_prepend(struct blame_entry *head,
 					long start, long end,
 					struct blame_origin *o);
 
-extern struct blame_origin *get_blame_suspects(struct commit *commit);
+struct blame_origin *get_blame_suspects(struct commit *commit);
 
 #endif /* BLAME_H */
diff --git a/branch.h b/branch.h
index 29c1afa4d0..f1f74d21e4 100644
--- a/branch.h
+++ b/branch.h
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ void create_branch(struct repository *r,
  * Return 1 if the named branch already exists; return 0 otherwise.
  * Fill ref with the full refname for the branch.
  */
-extern int validate_branchname(const char *name, struct strbuf *ref);
+int validate_branchname(const char *name, struct strbuf *ref);
 
 /*
  * Check if a branch 'name' can be created as a new branch; die otherwise.
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ extern int validate_branchname(const char *name, struct strbuf *ref);
  * Return 1 if the named branch already exists; return 0 otherwise.
  * Fill ref with the full refname for the branch.
  */
-extern int validate_new_branchname(const char *name, struct strbuf *ref, int force);
+int validate_new_branchname(const char *name, struct strbuf *ref, int force);
 
 /*
  * Remove information about the state of working on the current
@@ -72,26 +72,26 @@ void remove_branch_state(struct repository *r);
  * Returns 0 on success.
  */
 #define BRANCH_CONFIG_VERBOSE 01
-extern int install_branch_config(int flag, const char *local, const char *origin, const char *remote);
+int install_branch_config(int flag, const char *local, const char *origin, const char *remote);
 
 /*
  * Read branch description
  */
-extern int read_branch_desc(struct strbuf *, const char *branch_name);
+int read_branch_desc(struct strbuf *, const char *branch_name);
 
 /*
  * Check if a branch is checked out in the main worktree or any linked
  * worktree and die (with a message describing its checkout location) if
  * it is.
  */
-extern void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree);
+void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree);
 
 /*
  * Update all per-worktree HEADs pointing at the old ref to point the new ref.
  * This will be used when renaming a branch. Returns 0 if successful, non-zero
  * otherwise.
  */
-extern int replace_each_worktree_head_symref(const char *oldref, const char *newref,
+int replace_each_worktree_head_symref(const char *oldref, const char *newref,
 					     const char *logmsg);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/builtin.h b/builtin.h
index 6538932e99..7627483f2f 100644
--- a/builtin.h
+++ b/builtin.h
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ extern const char git_more_info_string[];
 #define PRUNE_PACKED_DRY_RUN 01
 #define PRUNE_PACKED_VERBOSE 02
 
-extern void prune_packed_objects(int);
+void prune_packed_objects(int);
 
 struct fmt_merge_msg_opts {
 	unsigned add_title:1,
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ struct fmt_merge_msg_opts {
 	int shortlog_len;
 };
 
-extern int fmt_merge_msg(struct strbuf *in, struct strbuf *out,
+int fmt_merge_msg(struct strbuf *in, struct strbuf *out,
 			 struct fmt_merge_msg_opts *);
 
 /**
@@ -123,131 +123,131 @@ extern int fmt_merge_msg(struct strbuf *in, struct strbuf *out,
  * You should most likely use a default of 0 or 1. "Punt" (-1) could be useful
  * to be able to fall back to some historical compatibility name.
  */
-extern void setup_auto_pager(const char *cmd, int def);
+void setup_auto_pager(const char *cmd, int def);
 
-extern int is_builtin(const char *s);
+int is_builtin(const char *s);
 
-extern int cmd_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_am(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_annotate(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_apply(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_bisect__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_blame(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_bundle(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_checkout(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_checkout_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_check_attr(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_check_ignore(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_check_mailmap(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_check_ref_format(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_cherry(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_cherry_pick(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_clone(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_clean(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_column(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_commit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_commit_graph(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_commit_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_config(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_count_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_credential(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_describe(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_diff_files(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_diff_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_diff_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_difftool(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_fast_export(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_fetch_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_fmt_merge_msg(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_for_each_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_format_patch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_fsck(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_gc(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_get_tar_commit_id(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_grep(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_hash_object(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_help(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_index_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_init_db(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_interpret_trailers(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_log(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_log_reflog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_ls_files(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_ls_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_ls_remote(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_mailinfo(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_mailsplit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge_base(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge_ours(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge_recursive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_merge_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_mktag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_mktree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_multi_pack_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_mv(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_name_rev(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_notes(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_pack_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_pack_redundant(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_patch_id(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_prune(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_prune_packed(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_pull(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_push(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_range_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_read_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_rebase__interactive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_receive_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_reflog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_remote(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_remote_ext(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_remote_fd(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_repack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_rerere(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_reset(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_rev_list(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_rev_parse(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_revert(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_rm(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_send_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_serve(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_shortlog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_show(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_show_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_show_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_status(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_stripspace(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_submodule__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_symbolic_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_tag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_tar_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_unpack_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_unpack_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_update_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_update_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_update_server_info(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_upload_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_upload_archive_writer(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_upload_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_var(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_verify_commit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_verify_tag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_version(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_whatchanged(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_worktree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_write_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_verify_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_show_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_pack_refs(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_replace(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_am(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_annotate(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_apply(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_bisect__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_blame(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_bundle(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_cat_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_checkout(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_checkout_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_check_attr(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_check_ignore(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_check_mailmap(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_check_ref_format(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_cherry(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_cherry_pick(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_clone(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_clean(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_column(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_commit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_commit_graph(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_commit_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_config(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_count_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_credential(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_describe(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_diff_files(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_diff_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_diff_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_difftool(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_fast_export(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_fetch_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_fmt_merge_msg(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_for_each_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_format_patch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_fsck(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_gc(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_get_tar_commit_id(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_grep(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_hash_object(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_help(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_index_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_init_db(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_interpret_trailers(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_log(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_log_reflog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_ls_files(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_ls_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_ls_remote(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_mailinfo(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_mailsplit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge_base(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge_ours(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge_recursive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_merge_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_mktag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_mktree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_multi_pack_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_mv(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_name_rev(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_notes(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_pack_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_pack_redundant(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_patch_id(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_prune(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_prune_packed(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_pull(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_push(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_range_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_read_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_rebase(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_rebase__interactive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_receive_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_reflog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_remote(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_remote_ext(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_remote_fd(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_repack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_rerere(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_reset(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_rev_list(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_rev_parse(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_revert(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_rm(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_send_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_serve(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_shortlog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_show(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_show_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_show_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_status(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_stripspace(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_submodule__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_symbolic_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_tag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_tar_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_unpack_file(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_unpack_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_update_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_update_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_update_server_info(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_upload_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_upload_archive_writer(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_upload_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_var(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_verify_commit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_verify_tag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_version(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_whatchanged(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_worktree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_write_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_verify_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_show_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_pack_refs(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+int cmd_replace(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/bulk-checkin.h b/bulk-checkin.h
index f438f93811..bf830e780d 100644
--- a/bulk-checkin.h
+++ b/bulk-checkin.h
@@ -6,11 +6,11 @@
 
 #include "cache.h"
 
-extern int index_bulk_checkin(struct object_id *oid,
+int index_bulk_checkin(struct object_id *oid,
 			      int fd, size_t size, enum object_type type,
 			      const char *path, unsigned flags);
 
-extern void plug_bulk_checkin(void);
-extern void unplug_bulk_checkin(void);
+void plug_bulk_checkin(void);
+void unplug_bulk_checkin(void);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index ac92421f3a..e21a10b380 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -350,10 +350,10 @@ struct index_state {
 };
 
 /* Name hashing */
-extern int test_lazy_init_name_hash(struct index_state *istate, int try_threaded);
-extern void add_name_hash(struct index_state *istate, struct cache_entry *ce);
-extern void remove_name_hash(struct index_state *istate, struct cache_entry *ce);
-extern void free_name_hash(struct index_state *istate);
+int test_lazy_init_name_hash(struct index_state *istate, int try_threaded);
+void add_name_hash(struct index_state *istate, struct cache_entry *ce);
+void remove_name_hash(struct index_state *istate, struct cache_entry *ce);
+void free_name_hash(struct index_state *istate);
 
 
 /* Cache entry creation and cleanup */
@@ -543,7 +543,7 @@ static inline enum object_type object_type(unsigned int mode)
  */
 extern const char * const local_repo_env[];
 
-extern void setup_git_env(const char *git_dir);
+void setup_git_env(const char *git_dir);
 
 /*
  * Returns true iff we have a configured git repository (either via
@@ -552,29 +552,29 @@ extern void setup_git_env(const char *git_dir);
 int have_git_dir(void);
 
 extern int is_bare_repository_cfg;
-extern int is_bare_repository(void);
-extern int is_inside_git_dir(void);
+int is_bare_repository(void);
+int is_inside_git_dir(void);
 extern char *git_work_tree_cfg;
-extern int is_inside_work_tree(void);
-extern const char *get_git_dir(void);
-extern const char *get_git_common_dir(void);
-extern char *get_object_directory(void);
-extern char *get_index_file(void);
-extern char *get_graft_file(struct repository *r);
-extern void set_git_dir(const char *path);
-extern int get_common_dir_noenv(struct strbuf *sb, const char *gitdir);
-extern int get_common_dir(struct strbuf *sb, const char *gitdir);
-extern const char *get_git_namespace(void);
-extern const char *strip_namespace(const char *namespaced_ref);
-extern const char *get_super_prefix(void);
-extern const char *get_git_work_tree(void);
+int is_inside_work_tree(void);
+const char *get_git_dir(void);
+const char *get_git_common_dir(void);
+char *get_object_directory(void);
+char *get_index_file(void);
+char *get_graft_file(struct repository *r);
+void set_git_dir(const char *path);
+int get_common_dir_noenv(struct strbuf *sb, const char *gitdir);
+int get_common_dir(struct strbuf *sb, const char *gitdir);
+const char *get_git_namespace(void);
+const char *strip_namespace(const char *namespaced_ref);
+const char *get_super_prefix(void);
+const char *get_git_work_tree(void);
 
 /*
  * Return true if the given path is a git directory; note that this _just_
  * looks at the directory itself. If you want to know whether "foo/.git"
  * is a repository, you must feed that path, not just "foo".
  */
-extern int is_git_directory(const char *path);
+int is_git_directory(const char *path);
 
 /*
  * Return 1 if the given path is the root of a git repository or
@@ -586,7 +586,7 @@ extern int is_git_directory(const char *path);
  * as we usually consider sub-repos precious, and would prefer to err on the
  * side of not disrupting or deleting them.
  */
-extern int is_nonbare_repository_dir(struct strbuf *path);
+int is_nonbare_repository_dir(struct strbuf *path);
 
 #define READ_GITFILE_ERR_STAT_FAILED 1
 #define READ_GITFILE_ERR_NOT_A_FILE 2
@@ -596,17 +596,17 @@ extern int is_nonbare_repository_dir(struct strbuf *path);
 #define READ_GITFILE_ERR_NO_PATH 6
 #define READ_GITFILE_ERR_NOT_A_REPO 7
 #define READ_GITFILE_ERR_TOO_LARGE 8
-extern void read_gitfile_error_die(int error_code, const char *path, const char *dir);
-extern const char *read_gitfile_gently(const char *path, int *return_error_code);
+void read_gitfile_error_die(int error_code, const char *path, const char *dir);
+const char *read_gitfile_gently(const char *path, int *return_error_code);
 #define read_gitfile(path) read_gitfile_gently((path), NULL)
-extern const char *resolve_gitdir_gently(const char *suspect, int *return_error_code);
+const char *resolve_gitdir_gently(const char *suspect, int *return_error_code);
 #define resolve_gitdir(path) resolve_gitdir_gently((path), NULL)
 
-extern void set_git_work_tree(const char *tree);
+void set_git_work_tree(const char *tree);
 
 #define ALTERNATE_DB_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES"
 
-extern void setup_work_tree(void);
+void setup_work_tree(void);
 /*
  * Find the commondir and gitdir of the repository that contains the current
  * working directory, without changing the working directory or other global
@@ -615,12 +615,12 @@ extern void setup_work_tree(void);
  * both have the same result appended to the buffer.  The return value is
  * either 0 upon success and non-zero if no repository was found.
  */
-extern int discover_git_directory(struct strbuf *commondir,
+int discover_git_directory(struct strbuf *commondir,
 				  struct strbuf *gitdir);
-extern const char *setup_git_directory_gently(int *);
-extern const char *setup_git_directory(void);
-extern char *prefix_path(const char *prefix, int len, const char *path);
-extern char *prefix_path_gently(const char *prefix, int len, int *remaining, const char *path);
+const char *setup_git_directory_gently(int *);
+const char *setup_git_directory(void);
+char *prefix_path(const char *prefix, int len, const char *path);
+char *prefix_path_gently(const char *prefix, int len, int *remaining, const char *path);
 
 /*
  * Concatenate "prefix" (if len is non-zero) and "path", with no
@@ -632,23 +632,23 @@ extern char *prefix_path_gently(const char *prefix, int len, int *remaining, con
  * The return value is always a newly allocated string (even if the
  * prefix was empty).
  */
-extern char *prefix_filename(const char *prefix, const char *path);
+char *prefix_filename(const char *prefix, const char *path);
 
-extern int check_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
-extern void verify_filename(const char *prefix,
+int check_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
+void verify_filename(const char *prefix,
 			    const char *name,
 			    int diagnose_misspelt_rev);
-extern void verify_non_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
-extern int path_inside_repo(const char *prefix, const char *path);
+void verify_non_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
+int path_inside_repo(const char *prefix, const char *path);
 
 #define INIT_DB_QUIET 0x0001
 #define INIT_DB_EXIST_OK 0x0002
 
-extern int init_db(const char *git_dir, const char *real_git_dir,
+int init_db(const char *git_dir, const char *real_git_dir,
 		   const char *template_dir, unsigned int flags);
 
-extern void sanitize_stdfds(void);
-extern int daemonize(void);
+void sanitize_stdfds(void);
+int daemonize(void);
 
 #define alloc_nr(x) (((x)+16)*3/2)
 
@@ -672,14 +672,14 @@ extern int daemonize(void);
 
 /* Initialize and use the cache information */
 struct lock_file;
-extern void preload_index(struct index_state *index,
+void preload_index(struct index_state *index,
 			  const struct pathspec *pathspec,
 			  unsigned int refresh_flags);
-extern int do_read_index(struct index_state *istate, const char *path,
+int do_read_index(struct index_state *istate, const char *path,
 			 int must_exist); /* for testting only! */
-extern int read_index_from(struct index_state *, const char *path,
+int read_index_from(struct index_state *, const char *path,
 			   const char *gitdir);
-extern int is_index_unborn(struct index_state *);
+int is_index_unborn(struct index_state *);
 
 /* For use with `write_locked_index()`. */
 #define COMMIT_LOCK		(1 << 0)
@@ -704,11 +704,11 @@ extern int is_index_unborn(struct index_state *);
  * If `SKIP_IF_UNCHANGED` is given and the index is unchanged, nothing
  * is written (and the lock is rolled back if `COMMIT_LOCK` is given).
  */
-extern int write_locked_index(struct index_state *, struct lock_file *lock, unsigned flags);
+int write_locked_index(struct index_state *, struct lock_file *lock, unsigned flags);
 
-extern int discard_index(struct index_state *);
-extern void move_index_extensions(struct index_state *dst, struct index_state *src);
-extern int unmerged_index(const struct index_state *);
+int discard_index(struct index_state *);
+void move_index_extensions(struct index_state *dst, struct index_state *src);
+int unmerged_index(const struct index_state *);
 
 /**
  * Returns 1 if istate differs from tree, 0 otherwise.  If tree is NULL,
@@ -717,15 +717,15 @@ extern int unmerged_index(const struct index_state *);
  * provided, the space-separated list of files that differ will be appended
  * to it.
  */
-extern int repo_index_has_changes(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_index_has_changes(struct repository *repo,
 				  struct tree *tree,
 				  struct strbuf *sb);
 
-extern int verify_path(const char *path, unsigned mode);
-extern int strcmp_offset(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t *first_change);
-extern int index_dir_exists(struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen);
-extern void adjust_dirname_case(struct index_state *istate, char *name);
-extern struct cache_entry *index_file_exists(struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen, int igncase);
+int verify_path(const char *path, unsigned mode);
+int strcmp_offset(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t *first_change);
+int index_dir_exists(struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen);
+void adjust_dirname_case(struct index_state *istate, char *name);
+struct cache_entry *index_file_exists(struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen, int igncase);
 
 /*
  * Searches for an entry defined by name and namelen in the given index.
@@ -744,7 +744,7 @@ extern struct cache_entry *index_file_exists(struct index_state *istate, const c
  * index_name_pos(&index, "f", 1) -> -3
  * index_name_pos(&index, "g", 1) -> -5
  */
-extern int index_name_pos(const struct index_state *, const char *name, int namelen);
+int index_name_pos(const struct index_state *, const char *name, int namelen);
 
 #define ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD 1		/* Ok to add */
 #define ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE 2	/* Ok to replace file/directory */
@@ -753,14 +753,14 @@ extern int index_name_pos(const struct index_state *, const char *name, int name
 #define ADD_CACHE_NEW_ONLY 16		/* Do not replace existing ones */
 #define ADD_CACHE_KEEP_CACHE_TREE 32	/* Do not invalidate cache-tree */
 #define ADD_CACHE_RENORMALIZE 64        /* Pass along HASH_RENORMALIZE */
-extern int add_index_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *ce, int option);
-extern void rename_index_entry_at(struct index_state *, int pos, const char *new_name);
+int add_index_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *ce, int option);
+void rename_index_entry_at(struct index_state *, int pos, const char *new_name);
 
 /* Remove entry, return true if there are more entries to go. */
-extern int remove_index_entry_at(struct index_state *, int pos);
+int remove_index_entry_at(struct index_state *, int pos);
 
-extern void remove_marked_cache_entries(struct index_state *istate, int invalidate);
-extern int remove_file_from_index(struct index_state *, const char *path);
+void remove_marked_cache_entries(struct index_state *istate, int invalidate);
+int remove_file_from_index(struct index_state *, const char *path);
 #define ADD_CACHE_VERBOSE 1
 #define ADD_CACHE_PRETEND 2
 #define ADD_CACHE_IGNORE_ERRORS	4
@@ -775,14 +775,14 @@ extern int remove_file_from_index(struct index_state *, const char *path);
  * the latter will do necessary lstat(2) internally before
  * calling the former.
  */
-extern int add_to_index(struct index_state *, const char *path, struct stat *, int flags);
-extern int add_file_to_index(struct index_state *, const char *path, int flags);
+int add_to_index(struct index_state *, const char *path, struct stat *, int flags);
+int add_file_to_index(struct index_state *, const char *path, int flags);
 
-extern int chmod_index_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *ce, char flip);
-extern int ce_same_name(const struct cache_entry *a, const struct cache_entry *b);
-extern void set_object_name_for_intent_to_add_entry(struct cache_entry *ce);
-extern int index_name_is_other(const struct index_state *, const char *, int);
-extern void *read_blob_data_from_index(const struct index_state *, const char *, unsigned long *);
+int chmod_index_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *ce, char flip);
+int ce_same_name(const struct cache_entry *a, const struct cache_entry *b);
+void set_object_name_for_intent_to_add_entry(struct cache_entry *ce);
+int index_name_is_other(const struct index_state *, const char *, int);
+void *read_blob_data_from_index(const struct index_state *, const char *, unsigned long *);
 
 /* do stat comparison even if CE_VALID is true */
 #define CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID		01
@@ -796,22 +796,22 @@ extern void *read_blob_data_from_index(const struct index_state *, const char *,
 #define CE_MATCH_REFRESH		0x10
 /* don't refresh_fsmonitor state or do stat comparison even if CE_FSMONITOR_VALID is true */
 #define CE_MATCH_IGNORE_FSMONITOR 0X20
-extern int is_racy_timestamp(const struct index_state *istate,
+int is_racy_timestamp(const struct index_state *istate,
 			     const struct cache_entry *ce);
-extern int ie_match_stat(struct index_state *, const struct cache_entry *, struct stat *, unsigned int);
-extern int ie_modified(struct index_state *, const struct cache_entry *, struct stat *, unsigned int);
+int ie_match_stat(struct index_state *, const struct cache_entry *, struct stat *, unsigned int);
+int ie_modified(struct index_state *, const struct cache_entry *, struct stat *, unsigned int);
 
 #define HASH_WRITE_OBJECT 1
 #define HASH_FORMAT_CHECK 2
 #define HASH_RENORMALIZE  4
-extern int index_fd(struct index_state *istate, struct object_id *oid, int fd, struct stat *st, enum object_type type, const char *path, unsigned flags);
-extern int index_path(struct index_state *istate, struct object_id *oid, const char *path, struct stat *st, unsigned flags);
+int index_fd(struct index_state *istate, struct object_id *oid, int fd, struct stat *st, enum object_type type, const char *path, unsigned flags);
+int index_path(struct index_state *istate, struct object_id *oid, const char *path, struct stat *st, unsigned flags);
 
 /*
  * Record to sd the data from st that we use to check whether a file
  * might have changed.
  */
-extern void fill_stat_data(struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st);
+void fill_stat_data(struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st);
 
 /*
  * Return 0 if st is consistent with a file not having been changed
@@ -819,11 +819,11 @@ extern void fill_stat_data(struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st);
  * combination of MTIME_CHANGED, CTIME_CHANGED, OWNER_CHANGED,
  * INODE_CHANGED, and DATA_CHANGED.
  */
-extern int match_stat_data(const struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st);
-extern int match_stat_data_racy(const struct index_state *istate,
+int match_stat_data(const struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st);
+int match_stat_data_racy(const struct index_state *istate,
 				const struct stat_data *sd, struct stat *st);
 
-extern void fill_stat_cache_info(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st);
+void fill_stat_cache_info(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st);
 
 #define REFRESH_REALLY		0x0001	/* ignore_valid */
 #define REFRESH_UNMERGED	0x0002	/* allow unmerged */
@@ -832,10 +832,10 @@ extern void fill_stat_cache_info(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st);
 #define REFRESH_IGNORE_SUBMODULES	0x0010	/* ignore submodules */
 #define REFRESH_IN_PORCELAIN	0x0020	/* user friendly output, not "needs update" */
 #define REFRESH_PROGRESS	0x0040  /* show progress bar if stderr is tty */
-extern int refresh_index(struct index_state *, unsigned int flags, const struct pathspec *pathspec, char *seen, const char *header_msg);
-extern struct cache_entry *refresh_cache_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *, unsigned int);
+int refresh_index(struct index_state *, unsigned int flags, const struct pathspec *pathspec, char *seen, const char *header_msg);
+struct cache_entry *refresh_cache_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *, unsigned int);
 
-extern void set_alternate_index_output(const char *);
+void set_alternate_index_output(const char *);
 
 extern int verify_index_checksum;
 extern int verify_ce_order;
@@ -1020,7 +1020,7 @@ int verify_repository_format(const struct repository_format *format,
  * set_git_dir() before calling this, and use it only for "are we in a valid
  * repo?".
  */
-extern void check_repository_format(void);
+void check_repository_format(void);
 
 #define MTIME_CHANGED	0x0001
 #define CTIME_CHANGED	0x0002
@@ -1045,8 +1045,8 @@ extern void check_repository_format(void);
  * Note that while this version avoids the static buffer, it is not fully
  * reentrant, as it calls into other non-reentrant git code.
  */
-extern const char *find_unique_abbrev(const struct object_id *oid, int len);
-extern int find_unique_abbrev_r(char *hex, const struct object_id *oid, int len);
+const char *find_unique_abbrev(const struct object_id *oid, int len);
+int find_unique_abbrev_r(char *hex, const struct object_id *oid, int len);
 
 extern const unsigned char null_sha1[GIT_MAX_RAWSZ];
 extern const struct object_id null_oid;
@@ -1242,7 +1242,7 @@ typedef int create_file_fn(const char *path, void *cb);
 int raceproof_create_file(const char *path, create_file_fn fn, void *cb);
 
 int mkdir_in_gitdir(const char *path);
-extern char *expand_user_path(const char *path, int real_home);
+char *expand_user_path(const char *path, int real_home);
 const char *enter_repo(const char *path, int strict);
 static inline int is_absolute_path(const char *path)
 {
@@ -1286,26 +1286,26 @@ int looks_like_command_line_option(const char *str);
  * "$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/$filename" if $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is non-empty, otherwise
  * "$HOME/.config/git/$filename". Return NULL upon error.
  */
-extern char *xdg_config_home(const char *filename);
+char *xdg_config_home(const char *filename);
 
 /**
  * Return a newly allocated string with the evaluation of
  * "$XDG_CACHE_HOME/git/$filename" if $XDG_CACHE_HOME is non-empty, otherwise
  * "$HOME/.cache/git/$filename". Return NULL upon error.
  */
-extern char *xdg_cache_home(const char *filename);
+char *xdg_cache_home(const char *filename);
 
-extern int git_open_cloexec(const char *name, int flags);
+int git_open_cloexec(const char *name, int flags);
 #define git_open(name) git_open_cloexec(name, O_RDONLY)
-extern int unpack_loose_header(git_zstream *stream, unsigned char *map, unsigned long mapsize, void *buffer, unsigned long bufsiz);
-extern int parse_loose_header(const char *hdr, unsigned long *sizep);
+int unpack_loose_header(git_zstream *stream, unsigned char *map, unsigned long mapsize, void *buffer, unsigned long bufsiz);
+int parse_loose_header(const char *hdr, unsigned long *sizep);
 
-extern int check_object_signature(const struct object_id *oid, void *buf, unsigned long size, const char *type);
+int check_object_signature(const struct object_id *oid, void *buf, unsigned long size, const char *type);
 
-extern int finalize_object_file(const char *tmpfile, const char *filename);
+int finalize_object_file(const char *tmpfile, const char *filename);
 
 /* Helper to check and "touch" a file */
-extern int check_and_freshen_file(const char *fn, int freshen);
+int check_and_freshen_file(const char *fn, int freshen);
 
 extern const signed char hexval_table[256];
 static inline unsigned int hexval(unsigned char c)
@@ -1378,21 +1378,21 @@ enum get_oid_result {
 		       */
 };
 
-extern int get_oid(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
-extern int get_oid_commit(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
-extern int get_oid_committish(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
-extern int get_oid_tree(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
-extern int get_oid_treeish(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
-extern int get_oid_blob(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
-extern void maybe_die_on_misspelt_object_name(const char *name, const char *prefix);
-extern enum get_oid_result get_oid_with_context(struct repository *repo, const char *str,
+int get_oid(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+int get_oid_commit(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+int get_oid_committish(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+int get_oid_tree(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+int get_oid_treeish(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+int get_oid_blob(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+void maybe_die_on_misspelt_object_name(const char *name, const char *prefix);
+enum get_oid_result get_oid_with_context(struct repository *repo, const char *str,
 				unsigned flags, struct object_id *oid,
 				struct object_context *oc);
 
 typedef int each_abbrev_fn(const struct object_id *oid, void *);
-extern int for_each_abbrev(const char *prefix, each_abbrev_fn, void *);
+int for_each_abbrev(const char *prefix, each_abbrev_fn, void *);
 
-extern int set_disambiguate_hint_config(const char *var, const char *value);
+int set_disambiguate_hint_config(const char *var, const char *value);
 
 /*
  * Try to read a SHA1 in hexadecimal format from the 40 characters
@@ -1401,15 +1401,15 @@ extern int set_disambiguate_hint_config(const char *var, const char *value);
  * input, so it is safe to pass this function an arbitrary
  * null-terminated string.
  */
-extern int get_sha1_hex(const char *hex, unsigned char *sha1);
-extern int get_oid_hex(const char *hex, struct object_id *sha1);
+int get_sha1_hex(const char *hex, unsigned char *sha1);
+int get_oid_hex(const char *hex, struct object_id *sha1);
 
 /*
  * Read `len` pairs of hexadecimal digits from `hex` and write the
  * values to `binary` as `len` bytes. Return 0 on success, or -1 if
  * the input does not consist of hex digits).
  */
-extern int hex_to_bytes(unsigned char *binary, const char *hex, size_t len);
+int hex_to_bytes(unsigned char *binary, const char *hex, size_t len);
 
 /*
  * Convert a binary hash to its hex equivalent. The `_r` variant is reentrant,
@@ -1437,7 +1437,7 @@ char *oid_to_hex(const struct object_id *oid);						/* same static buffer */
  * other invalid character.  end is only updated on success; otherwise, it is
  * unmodified.
  */
-extern int parse_oid_hex(const char *hex, struct object_id *oid, const char **end);
+int parse_oid_hex(const char *hex, struct object_id *oid, const char **end);
 
 /*
  * This reads short-hand syntax that not only evaluates to a commit
@@ -1468,23 +1468,23 @@ extern int parse_oid_hex(const char *hex, struct object_id *oid, const char **en
 #define INTERPRET_BRANCH_LOCAL (1<<0)
 #define INTERPRET_BRANCH_REMOTE (1<<1)
 #define INTERPRET_BRANCH_HEAD (1<<2)
-extern int interpret_branch_name(const char *str, int len, struct strbuf *,
+int interpret_branch_name(const char *str, int len, struct strbuf *,
 				 unsigned allowed);
-extern int get_oid_mb(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+int get_oid_mb(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
 
-extern int validate_headref(const char *ref);
+int validate_headref(const char *ref);
 
-extern int base_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1, const char *name2, int len2, int mode2);
-extern int df_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1, const char *name2, int len2, int mode2);
-extern int name_compare(const char *name1, size_t len1, const char *name2, size_t len2);
-extern int cache_name_stage_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int stage1, const char *name2, int len2, int stage2);
+int base_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1, const char *name2, int len2, int mode2);
+int df_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1, const char *name2, int len2, int mode2);
+int name_compare(const char *name1, size_t len1, const char *name2, size_t len2);
+int cache_name_stage_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int stage1, const char *name2, int len2, int stage2);
 
-extern void *read_object_with_reference(const struct object_id *oid,
+void *read_object_with_reference(const struct object_id *oid,
 					const char *required_type,
 					unsigned long *size,
 					struct object_id *oid_ret);
 
-extern struct object *peel_to_type(const char *name, int namelen,
+struct object *peel_to_type(const char *name, int namelen,
 				   struct object *o, enum object_type);
 
 enum date_mode_type {
@@ -1539,20 +1539,20 @@ enum want_ident {
 	WANT_COMMITTER_IDENT
 };
 
-extern const char *git_author_info(int);
-extern const char *git_committer_info(int);
-extern const char *fmt_ident(const char *name, const char *email,
+const char *git_author_info(int);
+const char *git_committer_info(int);
+const char *fmt_ident(const char *name, const char *email,
 		enum want_ident whose_ident,
 		const char *date_str, int);
-extern const char *fmt_name(enum want_ident);
-extern const char *ident_default_name(void);
-extern const char *ident_default_email(void);
-extern const char *git_editor(void);
-extern const char *git_sequence_editor(void);
-extern const char *git_pager(int stdout_is_tty);
-extern int is_terminal_dumb(void);
-extern int git_ident_config(const char *, const char *, void *);
-extern void reset_ident_date(void);
+const char *fmt_name(enum want_ident);
+const char *ident_default_name(void);
+const char *ident_default_email(void);
+const char *git_editor(void);
+const char *git_sequence_editor(void);
+const char *git_pager(int stdout_is_tty);
+int is_terminal_dumb(void);
+int git_ident_config(const char *, const char *, void *);
+void reset_ident_date(void);
 
 struct ident_split {
 	const char *name_begin;
@@ -1568,7 +1568,7 @@ struct ident_split {
  * Signals an success with 0, but time part of the result may be NULL
  * if the input lacks timestamp and zone
  */
-extern int split_ident_line(struct ident_split *, const char *, int);
+int split_ident_line(struct ident_split *, const char *, int);
 
 /*
  * Like show_date, but pull the timestamp and tz parameters from
@@ -1585,7 +1585,7 @@ const char *show_ident_date(const struct ident_split *id,
  * Because there are two fields, we must choose one as the primary key; we
  * currently arbitrarily pick the email.
  */
-extern int ident_cmp(const struct ident_split *, const struct ident_split *);
+int ident_cmp(const struct ident_split *, const struct ident_split *);
 
 struct checkout {
 	struct index_state *istate;
@@ -1601,14 +1601,14 @@ struct checkout {
 #define CHECKOUT_INIT { NULL, "" }
 
 #define TEMPORARY_FILENAME_LENGTH 25
-extern int checkout_entry(struct cache_entry *ce, const struct checkout *state, char *topath, int *nr_checkouts);
-extern void enable_delayed_checkout(struct checkout *state);
-extern int finish_delayed_checkout(struct checkout *state, int *nr_checkouts);
+int checkout_entry(struct cache_entry *ce, const struct checkout *state, char *topath, int *nr_checkouts);
+void enable_delayed_checkout(struct checkout *state);
+int finish_delayed_checkout(struct checkout *state, int *nr_checkouts);
 /*
  * Unlink the last component and schedule the leading directories for
  * removal, such that empty directories get removed.
  */
-extern void unlink_entry(const struct cache_entry *ce);
+void unlink_entry(const struct cache_entry *ce);
 
 struct cache_def {
 	struct strbuf path;
@@ -1622,12 +1622,12 @@ static inline void cache_def_clear(struct cache_def *cache)
 	strbuf_release(&cache->path);
 }
 
-extern int has_symlink_leading_path(const char *name, int len);
-extern int threaded_has_symlink_leading_path(struct cache_def *, const char *, int);
-extern int check_leading_path(const char *name, int len);
-extern int has_dirs_only_path(const char *name, int len, int prefix_len);
-extern void schedule_dir_for_removal(const char *name, int len);
-extern void remove_scheduled_dirs(void);
+int has_symlink_leading_path(const char *name, int len);
+int threaded_has_symlink_leading_path(struct cache_def *, const char *, int);
+int check_leading_path(const char *name, int len);
+int has_dirs_only_path(const char *name, int len, int prefix_len);
+void schedule_dir_for_removal(const char *name, int len);
+void remove_scheduled_dirs(void);
 
 struct pack_window {
 	struct pack_window *next;
@@ -1649,14 +1649,14 @@ struct pack_entry {
  * usual "XXXXXX" trailer, and the resulting filename is written into the
  * "template" buffer. Returns the open descriptor.
  */
-extern int odb_mkstemp(struct strbuf *temp_filename, const char *pattern);
+int odb_mkstemp(struct strbuf *temp_filename, const char *pattern);
 
 /*
  * Create a pack .keep file named "name" (which should generally be the output
  * of odb_pack_name). Returns a file descriptor opened for writing, or -1 on
  * error.
  */
-extern int odb_pack_keep(const char *name);
+int odb_pack_keep(const char *name);
 
 /*
  * Set this to 0 to prevent oid_object_info_extended() from fetching missing
@@ -1667,10 +1667,10 @@ extern int odb_pack_keep(const char *name);
 extern int fetch_if_missing;
 
 /* Dumb servers support */
-extern int update_server_info(int);
+int update_server_info(int);
 
-extern const char *get_log_output_encoding(void);
-extern const char *get_commit_output_encoding(void);
+const char *get_log_output_encoding(void);
+const char *get_commit_output_encoding(void);
 
 /*
  * This is a hack for test programs like test-dump-untracked-cache to
@@ -1679,8 +1679,8 @@ extern const char *get_commit_output_encoding(void);
  */
 extern int ignore_untracked_cache_config;
 
-extern int committer_ident_sufficiently_given(void);
-extern int author_ident_sufficiently_given(void);
+int committer_ident_sufficiently_given(void);
+int author_ident_sufficiently_given(void);
 
 extern const char *git_commit_encoding;
 extern const char *git_log_output_encoding;
@@ -1688,22 +1688,22 @@ extern const char *git_mailmap_file;
 extern const char *git_mailmap_blob;
 
 /* IO helper functions */
-extern void maybe_flush_or_die(FILE *, const char *);
+void maybe_flush_or_die(FILE *, const char *);
 __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
 extern void fprintf_or_die(FILE *, const char *fmt, ...);
 
 #define COPY_READ_ERROR (-2)
 #define COPY_WRITE_ERROR (-3)
-extern int copy_fd(int ifd, int ofd);
-extern int copy_file(const char *dst, const char *src, int mode);
-extern int copy_file_with_time(const char *dst, const char *src, int mode);
+int copy_fd(int ifd, int ofd);
+int copy_file(const char *dst, const char *src, int mode);
+int copy_file_with_time(const char *dst, const char *src, int mode);
 
-extern void write_or_die(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count);
-extern void fsync_or_die(int fd, const char *);
+void write_or_die(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count);
+void fsync_or_die(int fd, const char *);
 
-extern ssize_t read_in_full(int fd, void *buf, size_t count);
-extern ssize_t write_in_full(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count);
-extern ssize_t pread_in_full(int fd, void *buf, size_t count, off_t offset);
+ssize_t read_in_full(int fd, void *buf, size_t count);
+ssize_t write_in_full(int fd, const void *buf, size_t count);
+ssize_t pread_in_full(int fd, void *buf, size_t count, off_t offset);
 
 static inline ssize_t write_str_in_full(int fd, const char *str)
 {
@@ -1714,7 +1714,7 @@ static inline ssize_t write_str_in_full(int fd, const char *str)
  * Open (and truncate) the file at path, write the contents of buf to it,
  * and close it. Dies if any errors are encountered.
  */
-extern void write_file_buf(const char *path, const char *buf, size_t len);
+void write_file_buf(const char *path, const char *buf, size_t len);
 
 /**
  * Like write_file_buf(), but format the contents into a buffer first.
@@ -1727,13 +1727,13 @@ __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
 extern void write_file(const char *path, const char *fmt, ...);
 
 /* pager.c */
-extern void setup_pager(void);
-extern int pager_in_use(void);
+void setup_pager(void);
+int pager_in_use(void);
 extern int pager_use_color;
-extern int term_columns(void);
-extern int decimal_width(uintmax_t);
-extern int check_pager_config(const char *cmd);
-extern void prepare_pager_args(struct child_process *, const char *pager);
+int term_columns(void);
+int decimal_width(uintmax_t);
+int check_pager_config(const char *cmd);
+void prepare_pager_args(struct child_process *, const char *pager);
 
 extern const char *editor_program;
 extern const char *askpass_program;
@@ -1777,13 +1777,13 @@ void shift_tree_by(const struct object_id *, const struct object_id *, struct ob
 /* All WS_* -- when extended, adapt diff.c emit_symbol */
 #define WS_RULE_MASK           07777
 extern unsigned whitespace_rule_cfg;
-extern unsigned whitespace_rule(struct index_state *, const char *);
-extern unsigned parse_whitespace_rule(const char *);
-extern unsigned ws_check(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule);
-extern void ws_check_emit(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule, FILE *stream, const char *set, const char *reset, const char *ws);
-extern char *whitespace_error_string(unsigned ws);
-extern void ws_fix_copy(struct strbuf *, const char *, int, unsigned, int *);
-extern int ws_blank_line(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule);
+unsigned whitespace_rule(struct index_state *, const char *);
+unsigned parse_whitespace_rule(const char *);
+unsigned ws_check(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule);
+void ws_check_emit(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule, FILE *stream, const char *set, const char *reset, const char *ws);
+char *whitespace_error_string(unsigned ws);
+void ws_fix_copy(struct strbuf *, const char *, int, unsigned, int *);
+int ws_blank_line(const char *line, int len, unsigned ws_rule);
 #define ws_tab_width(rule)     ((rule) & WS_TAB_WIDTH_MASK)
 
 /* ls-files */
@@ -1853,9 +1853,9 @@ void safe_create_dir(const char *dir, int share);
  * Should we print an ellipsis after an abbreviated SHA-1 value
  * when doing diff-raw output or indicating a detached HEAD?
  */
-extern int print_sha1_ellipsis(void);
+int print_sha1_ellipsis(void);
 
 /* Return 1 if the file is empty or does not exists, 0 otherwise. */
-extern int is_empty_or_missing_file(const char *filename);
+int is_empty_or_missing_file(const char *filename);
 
 #endif /* CACHE_H */
diff --git a/checkout.h b/checkout.h
index 6b2073310c..a6f5180436 100644
--- a/checkout.h
+++ b/checkout.h
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
  * tracking branch.  Return the name of the remote if such a branch
  * exists, NULL otherwise.
  */
-extern const char *unique_tracking_name(const char *name,
+const char *unique_tracking_name(const char *name,
 					struct object_id *oid,
 					int *dwim_remotes_matched);
 
diff --git a/column.h b/column.h
index 2567a5cf4d..72cf539667 100644
--- a/column.h
+++ b/column.h
@@ -27,20 +27,20 @@ struct column_options {
 };
 
 struct option;
-extern int parseopt_column_callback(const struct option *, const char *, int);
-extern int git_column_config(const char *var, const char *value,
+int parseopt_column_callback(const struct option *, const char *, int);
+int git_column_config(const char *var, const char *value,
 			     const char *command, unsigned int *colopts);
-extern int finalize_colopts(unsigned int *colopts, int stdout_is_tty);
+int finalize_colopts(unsigned int *colopts, int stdout_is_tty);
 static inline int column_active(unsigned int colopts)
 {
 	return (colopts & COL_ENABLE_MASK) == COL_ENABLED;
 }
 
 struct string_list;
-extern void print_columns(const struct string_list *list, unsigned int colopts,
+void print_columns(const struct string_list *list, unsigned int colopts,
 			  const struct column_options *opts);
 
-extern int run_column_filter(int colopts, const struct column_options *);
-extern int stop_column_filter(void);
+int run_column_filter(int colopts, const struct column_options *);
+int stop_column_filter(void);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/commit.h b/commit.h
index 42728c2906..26d0b51758 100644
--- a/commit.h
+++ b/commit.h
@@ -177,8 +177,8 @@ void free_commit_list(struct commit_list *list);
 
 struct rev_info; /* in revision.h, it circularly uses enum cmit_fmt */
 
-extern int has_non_ascii(const char *text);
-extern const char *logmsg_reencode(const struct commit *commit,
+int has_non_ascii(const char *text);
+const char *logmsg_reencode(const struct commit *commit,
 				   char **commit_encoding,
 				   const char *output_encoding);
 const char *repo_logmsg_reencode(struct repository *r,
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ const char *repo_logmsg_reencode(struct repository *r,
 #define logmsg_reencode(c, enc, out) repo_logmsg_reencode(the_repository, c, enc, out)
 #endif
 
-extern const char *skip_blank_lines(const char *msg);
+const char *skip_blank_lines(const char *msg);
 
 /** Removes the first commit from a list sorted by date, and adds all
  * of its parents.
@@ -240,22 +240,22 @@ struct commit *get_fork_point(const char *refname, struct commit *commit);
 
 struct oid_array;
 struct ref;
-extern int register_shallow(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid);
-extern int unregister_shallow(const struct object_id *oid);
-extern int for_each_commit_graft(each_commit_graft_fn, void *);
-extern int is_repository_shallow(struct repository *r);
-extern struct commit_list *get_shallow_commits(struct object_array *heads,
+int register_shallow(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid);
+int unregister_shallow(const struct object_id *oid);
+int for_each_commit_graft(each_commit_graft_fn, void *);
+int is_repository_shallow(struct repository *r);
+struct commit_list *get_shallow_commits(struct object_array *heads,
 		int depth, int shallow_flag, int not_shallow_flag);
-extern struct commit_list *get_shallow_commits_by_rev_list(
+struct commit_list *get_shallow_commits_by_rev_list(
 		int ac, const char **av, int shallow_flag, int not_shallow_flag);
-extern void set_alternate_shallow_file(struct repository *r, const char *path, int override);
-extern int write_shallow_commits(struct strbuf *out, int use_pack_protocol,
+void set_alternate_shallow_file(struct repository *r, const char *path, int override);
+int write_shallow_commits(struct strbuf *out, int use_pack_protocol,
 				 const struct oid_array *extra);
-extern void setup_alternate_shallow(struct lock_file *shallow_lock,
+void setup_alternate_shallow(struct lock_file *shallow_lock,
 				    const char **alternate_shallow_file,
 				    const struct oid_array *extra);
-extern const char *setup_temporary_shallow(const struct oid_array *extra);
-extern void advertise_shallow_grafts(int);
+const char *setup_temporary_shallow(const struct oid_array *extra);
+void advertise_shallow_grafts(int);
 
 struct shallow_info {
 	struct oid_array *shallow;
@@ -272,20 +272,20 @@ struct shallow_info {
 	int nr_commits;
 };
 
-extern void prepare_shallow_info(struct shallow_info *, struct oid_array *);
-extern void clear_shallow_info(struct shallow_info *);
-extern void remove_nonexistent_theirs_shallow(struct shallow_info *);
-extern void assign_shallow_commits_to_refs(struct shallow_info *info,
+void prepare_shallow_info(struct shallow_info *, struct oid_array *);
+void clear_shallow_info(struct shallow_info *);
+void remove_nonexistent_theirs_shallow(struct shallow_info *);
+void assign_shallow_commits_to_refs(struct shallow_info *info,
 					   uint32_t **used,
 					   int *ref_status);
-extern int delayed_reachability_test(struct shallow_info *si, int c);
+int delayed_reachability_test(struct shallow_info *si, int c);
 #define PRUNE_SHOW_ONLY 1
 #define PRUNE_QUICK 2
-extern void prune_shallow(unsigned options);
+void prune_shallow(unsigned options);
 extern struct trace_key trace_shallow;
 
-extern int interactive_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix, int patch);
-extern int run_add_interactive(const char *revision, const char *patch_mode,
+int interactive_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix, int patch);
+int run_add_interactive(const char *revision, const char *patch_mode,
 			       const struct pathspec *pathspec);
 
 struct commit_extra_header {
@@ -295,24 +295,24 @@ struct commit_extra_header {
 	size_t len;
 };
 
-extern void append_merge_tag_headers(struct commit_list *parents,
+void append_merge_tag_headers(struct commit_list *parents,
 				     struct commit_extra_header ***tail);
 
-extern int commit_tree(const char *msg, size_t msg_len,
+int commit_tree(const char *msg, size_t msg_len,
 		       const struct object_id *tree,
 		       struct commit_list *parents, struct object_id *ret,
 		       const char *author, const char *sign_commit);
 
-extern int commit_tree_extended(const char *msg, size_t msg_len,
+int commit_tree_extended(const char *msg, size_t msg_len,
 				const struct object_id *tree,
 				struct commit_list *parents,
 				struct object_id *ret, const char *author,
 				const char *sign_commit,
 				struct commit_extra_header *);
 
-extern struct commit_extra_header *read_commit_extra_headers(struct commit *, const char **);
+struct commit_extra_header *read_commit_extra_headers(struct commit *, const char **);
 
-extern void free_commit_extra_headers(struct commit_extra_header *extra);
+void free_commit_extra_headers(struct commit_extra_header *extra);
 
 /*
  * Search the commit object contents given by "msg" for the header "key".
@@ -322,23 +322,23 @@ extern void free_commit_extra_headers(struct commit_extra_header *extra);
  * Note that some headers (like mergetag) may be multi-line. It is the caller's
  * responsibility to parse further in this case!
  */
-extern const char *find_commit_header(const char *msg, const char *key,
+const char *find_commit_header(const char *msg, const char *key,
 				      size_t *out_len);
 
 /* Find the end of the log message, the right place for a new trailer. */
-extern size_t ignore_non_trailer(const char *buf, size_t len);
+size_t ignore_non_trailer(const char *buf, size_t len);
 
 typedef int (*each_mergetag_fn)(struct commit *commit, struct commit_extra_header *extra,
 				 void *cb_data);
 
-extern int for_each_mergetag(each_mergetag_fn fn, struct commit *commit, void *data);
+int for_each_mergetag(each_mergetag_fn fn, struct commit *commit, void *data);
 
 struct merge_remote_desc {
 	struct object *obj; /* the named object, could be a tag */
 	char name[FLEX_ARRAY];
 };
-extern struct merge_remote_desc *merge_remote_util(struct commit *);
-extern void set_merge_remote_desc(struct commit *commit,
+struct merge_remote_desc *merge_remote_util(struct commit *);
+void set_merge_remote_desc(struct commit *commit,
 				  const char *name, struct object *obj);
 
 /*
@@ -348,9 +348,9 @@ extern void set_merge_remote_desc(struct commit *commit,
  */
 struct commit *get_merge_parent(const char *name);
 
-extern int parse_signed_commit(const struct commit *commit,
+int parse_signed_commit(const struct commit *commit,
 			       struct strbuf *message, struct strbuf *signature);
-extern int remove_signature(struct strbuf *buf);
+int remove_signature(struct strbuf *buf);
 
 /*
  * Check the signature of the given commit. The result of the check is stored
@@ -359,7 +359,7 @@ extern int remove_signature(struct strbuf *buf);
  * at all.  This may allocate memory for sig->gpg_output, sig->gpg_status,
  * sig->signer and sig->key.
  */
-extern int check_commit_signature(const struct commit *commit, struct signature_check *sigc);
+int check_commit_signature(const struct commit *commit, struct signature_check *sigc);
 
 /* record author-date for each commit object */
 struct author_date_slab;
diff --git a/compat/mingw.c b/compat/mingw.c
index 6b04514cdc..8e1ab3129e 100644
--- a/compat/mingw.c
+++ b/compat/mingw.c
@@ -2483,7 +2483,7 @@ typedef struct {
 	int newmode;
 } _startupinfo;
 
-extern int __wgetmainargs(int *argc, wchar_t ***argv, wchar_t ***env, int glob,
+int __wgetmainargs(int *argc, wchar_t ***argv, wchar_t ***env, int glob,
 		_startupinfo *si);
 
 static NORETURN void die_startup(void)
diff --git a/compat/mingw.h b/compat/mingw.h
index 4d73f8aa9d..51938eac12 100644
--- a/compat/mingw.h
+++ b/compat/mingw.h
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ typedef _sigset_t sigset_t;
 #undef _POSIX_THREAD_SAFE_FUNCTIONS
 #endif
 
-extern int mingw_core_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
+int mingw_core_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
 #define platform_core_config mingw_core_config
 
 /*
@@ -449,7 +449,7 @@ static inline void convert_slashes(char *path)
 			*path = '/';
 }
 #define PATH_SEP ';'
-extern char *mingw_query_user_email(void);
+char *mingw_query_user_email(void);
 #define query_user_email mingw_query_user_email
 #if !defined(__MINGW64_VERSION_MAJOR) && (!defined(_MSC_VER) || _MSC_VER < 1800)
 #define PRIuMAX "I64u"
@@ -586,4 +586,4 @@ static int mingw_main(c,v)
 /*
  * Used by Pthread API implementation for Windows
  */
-extern int err_win_to_posix(DWORD winerr);
+int err_win_to_posix(DWORD winerr);
diff --git a/compat/nedmalloc/malloc.c.h b/compat/nedmalloc/malloc.c.h
index b833ff9225..9daedd046c 100644
--- a/compat/nedmalloc/malloc.c.h
+++ b/compat/nedmalloc/malloc.c.h
@@ -1327,7 +1327,7 @@ int mspace_mallopt(int, int);
 #include <unistd.h>     /* for sbrk, sysconf */
 #else /* LACKS_UNISTD_H */
 #if !defined(__FreeBSD__) && !defined(__OpenBSD__) && !defined(__NetBSD__)
-extern void*     sbrk(ptrdiff_t);
+void*     sbrk(ptrdiff_t);
 #endif /* FreeBSD etc */
 #endif /* LACKS_UNISTD_H */
 
@@ -1444,7 +1444,7 @@ unsigned char _BitScanReverse(unsigned long *index, unsigned long mask);
 #    define malloc_getpagesize sysconf(_SC_PAGE_SIZE)
 #  else
 #    if defined(BSD) || defined(DGUX) || defined(HAVE_GETPAGESIZE)
-       extern size_t getpagesize();
+       size_t getpagesize();
 #      define malloc_getpagesize getpagesize()
 #    else
 #      ifdef WIN32 /* use supplied emulation of getpagesize */
diff --git a/compat/obstack.h b/compat/obstack.h
index ced94d0118..168d1d8b38 100644
--- a/compat/obstack.h
+++ b/compat/obstack.h
@@ -182,13 +182,13 @@ struct obstack		/* control current object in current chunk */
 
 /* Declare the external functions we use; they are in obstack.c.  */
 
-extern void _obstack_newchunk (struct obstack *, int);
-extern int _obstack_begin (struct obstack *, int, int,
+void _obstack_newchunk (struct obstack *, int);
+int _obstack_begin (struct obstack *, int, int,
 			    void *(*) (long), void (*) (void *));
-extern int _obstack_begin_1 (struct obstack *, int, int,
+int _obstack_begin_1 (struct obstack *, int, int,
 			     void *(*) (void *, long),
 			     void (*) (void *, void *), void *);
-extern int _obstack_memory_used (struct obstack *);
+int _obstack_memory_used (struct obstack *);
 
 void obstack_free (struct obstack *, void *);
 
diff --git a/compat/poll/poll.h b/compat/poll/poll.h
index 1e1597360f..0a6d4967f0 100644
--- a/compat/poll/poll.h
+++ b/compat/poll/poll.h
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ struct pollfd
 
 typedef unsigned long nfds_t;
 
-extern int poll (struct pollfd *pfd, nfds_t nfd, int timeout);
+int poll (struct pollfd *pfd, nfds_t nfd, int timeout);
 
 /* Define INFTIM only if doing so conforms to POSIX.  */
 #if !defined (_POSIX_C_SOURCE) && !defined (_XOPEN_SOURCE)
diff --git a/compat/regex/regex.h b/compat/regex/regex.h
index 4d81358a83..16b0b4def3 100644
--- a/compat/regex/regex.h
+++ b/compat/regex/regex.h
@@ -465,19 +465,19 @@ typedef struct
 #ifdef __USE_GNU
 /* Sets the current default syntax to SYNTAX, and return the old syntax.
    You can also simply assign to the `re_syntax_options' variable.  */
-extern reg_syntax_t re_set_syntax (reg_syntax_t __syntax);
+reg_syntax_t re_set_syntax (reg_syntax_t __syntax);
 
 /* Compile the regular expression PATTERN, with length LENGTH
    and syntax given by the global `re_syntax_options', into the buffer
    BUFFER.  Return NULL if successful, and an error string if not.  */
-extern const char *re_compile_pattern (const char *__pattern, size_t __length,
+const char *re_compile_pattern (const char *__pattern, size_t __length,
 				       struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer);
 
 
 /* Compile a fastmap for the compiled pattern in BUFFER; used to
    accelerate searches.  Return 0 if successful and -2 if was an
    internal error.  */
-extern int re_compile_fastmap (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer);
+int re_compile_fastmap (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer);
 
 
 /* Search in the string STRING (with length LENGTH) for the pattern
@@ -485,14 +485,14 @@ extern int re_compile_fastmap (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer);
    characters.  Return the starting position of the match, -1 for no
    match, or -2 for an internal error.  Also return register
    information in REGS (if REGS and BUFFER->no_sub are nonzero).  */
-extern int re_search (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer, const char *__cstring,
+int re_search (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer, const char *__cstring,
 		      int __length, int __start, int __range,
 		      struct re_registers *__regs);
 
 
 /* Like `re_search', but search in the concatenation of STRING1 and
    STRING2.  Also, stop searching at index START + STOP.  */
-extern int re_search_2 (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
+int re_search_2 (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
 			const char *__string1, int __length1,
 			const char *__string2, int __length2, int __start,
 			int __range, struct re_registers *__regs, int __stop);
@@ -500,12 +500,12 @@ extern int re_search_2 (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
 
 /* Like `re_search', but return how many characters in STRING the regexp
    in BUFFER matched, starting at position START.  */
-extern int re_match (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer, const char *__cstring,
+int re_match (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer, const char *__cstring,
 		     int __length, int __start, struct re_registers *__regs);
 
 
 /* Relates to `re_match' as `re_search_2' relates to `re_search'.  */
-extern int re_match_2 (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
+int re_match_2 (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
 		       const char *__string1, int __length1,
 		       const char *__string2, int __length2, int __start,
 		       struct re_registers *__regs, int __stop);
@@ -523,7 +523,7 @@ extern int re_match_2 (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
    Unless this function is called, the first search or match using
    PATTERN_BUFFER will allocate its own register data, without
    freeing the old data.  */
-extern void re_set_registers (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
+void re_set_registers (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
 			      struct re_registers *__regs,
 			      unsigned int __num_regs,
 			      regoff_t *__starts, regoff_t *__ends);
@@ -532,8 +532,8 @@ extern void re_set_registers (struct re_pattern_buffer *__buffer,
 #if defined _REGEX_RE_COMP || (defined _LIBC && defined __USE_BSD)
 # ifndef _CRAY
 /* 4.2 bsd compatibility.  */
-extern char *re_comp (const char *);
-extern int re_exec (const char *);
+char *re_comp (const char *);
+int re_exec (const char *);
 # endif
 #endif
 
@@ -559,19 +559,19 @@ extern int re_exec (const char *);
 #endif
 
 /* POSIX compatibility.  */
-extern int regcomp (regex_t *__restrict __preg,
+int regcomp (regex_t *__restrict __preg,
 		    const char *__restrict __pattern,
 		    int __cflags);
 
-extern int regexec (const regex_t *__restrict __preg,
+int regexec (const regex_t *__restrict __preg,
 		    const char *__restrict __cstring, size_t __nmatch,
 		    regmatch_t __pmatch[__restrict_arr],
 		    int __eflags);
 
-extern size_t regerror (int __errcode, const regex_t *__restrict __preg,
+size_t regerror (int __errcode, const regex_t *__restrict __preg,
 			char *__restrict __errbuf, size_t __errbuf_size);
 
-extern void regfree (regex_t *__preg);
+void regfree (regex_t *__preg);
 
 
 #ifdef __cplusplus
diff --git a/compat/win32/pthread.h b/compat/win32/pthread.h
index c6cb8dd219..f1cfe73de9 100644
--- a/compat/win32/pthread.h
+++ b/compat/win32/pthread.h
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ typedef struct {
 	DWORD tid;
 } pthread_t;
 
-extern int pthread_create(pthread_t *thread, const void *unused,
+int pthread_create(pthread_t *thread, const void *unused,
 			  void *(*start_routine)(void*), void *arg);
 
 /*
@@ -59,10 +59,10 @@ extern int pthread_create(pthread_t *thread, const void *unused,
  */
 #define pthread_join(a, b) win32_pthread_join(&(a), (b))
 
-extern int win32_pthread_join(pthread_t *thread, void **value_ptr);
+int win32_pthread_join(pthread_t *thread, void **value_ptr);
 
 #define pthread_equal(t1, t2) ((t1).tid == (t2).tid)
-extern pthread_t pthread_self(void);
+pthread_t pthread_self(void);
 
 static inline void NORETURN pthread_exit(void *ret)
 {
diff --git a/config.h b/config.h
index ee5d3fa7b4..f9d5593c8b 100644
--- a/config.h
+++ b/config.h
@@ -68,62 +68,62 @@ struct config_options {
 };
 
 typedef int (*config_fn_t)(const char *, const char *, void *);
-extern int git_default_config(const char *, const char *, void *);
-extern int git_config_from_file(config_fn_t fn, const char *, void *);
-extern int git_config_from_file_with_options(config_fn_t fn, const char *,
+int git_default_config(const char *, const char *, void *);
+int git_config_from_file(config_fn_t fn, const char *, void *);
+int git_config_from_file_with_options(config_fn_t fn, const char *,
 					     void *,
 					     const struct config_options *);
-extern int git_config_from_mem(config_fn_t fn,
+int git_config_from_mem(config_fn_t fn,
 			       const enum config_origin_type,
 			       const char *name,
 			       const char *buf, size_t len,
 			       void *data, const struct config_options *opts);
-extern int git_config_from_blob_oid(config_fn_t fn, const char *name,
+int git_config_from_blob_oid(config_fn_t fn, const char *name,
 				    const struct object_id *oid, void *data);
-extern void git_config_push_parameter(const char *text);
-extern int git_config_from_parameters(config_fn_t fn, void *data);
-extern void read_early_config(config_fn_t cb, void *data);
-extern void git_config(config_fn_t fn, void *);
-extern int config_with_options(config_fn_t fn, void *,
+void git_config_push_parameter(const char *text);
+int git_config_from_parameters(config_fn_t fn, void *data);
+void read_early_config(config_fn_t cb, void *data);
+void git_config(config_fn_t fn, void *);
+int config_with_options(config_fn_t fn, void *,
 			       struct git_config_source *config_source,
 			       const struct config_options *opts);
-extern int git_parse_ssize_t(const char *, ssize_t *);
-extern int git_parse_ulong(const char *, unsigned long *);
-extern int git_parse_maybe_bool(const char *);
-extern int git_config_int(const char *, const char *);
-extern int64_t git_config_int64(const char *, const char *);
-extern unsigned long git_config_ulong(const char *, const char *);
-extern ssize_t git_config_ssize_t(const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_bool_or_int(const char *, const char *, int *);
-extern int git_config_bool(const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_string(const char **, const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_pathname(const char **, const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_expiry_date(timestamp_t *, const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_color(char *, const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_set_in_file_gently(const char *, const char *, const char *);
-extern void git_config_set_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_set_gently(const char *, const char *);
-extern void git_config_set(const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_parse_key(const char *, char **, int *);
-extern int git_config_key_is_valid(const char *key);
-extern int git_config_set_multivar_gently(const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
-extern void git_config_set_multivar(const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
-extern int git_config_set_multivar_in_file_gently(const char *, const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
-extern void git_config_set_multivar_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
-extern int git_config_rename_section(const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_rename_section_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_copy_section(const char *, const char *);
-extern int git_config_copy_section_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *);
-extern const char *git_etc_gitconfig(void);
-extern int git_env_bool(const char *, int);
-extern unsigned long git_env_ulong(const char *, unsigned long);
-extern int git_config_system(void);
-extern int config_error_nonbool(const char *);
+int git_parse_ssize_t(const char *, ssize_t *);
+int git_parse_ulong(const char *, unsigned long *);
+int git_parse_maybe_bool(const char *);
+int git_config_int(const char *, const char *);
+int64_t git_config_int64(const char *, const char *);
+unsigned long git_config_ulong(const char *, const char *);
+ssize_t git_config_ssize_t(const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_bool_or_int(const char *, const char *, int *);
+int git_config_bool(const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_string(const char **, const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_pathname(const char **, const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_expiry_date(timestamp_t *, const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_color(char *, const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_set_in_file_gently(const char *, const char *, const char *);
+void git_config_set_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_set_gently(const char *, const char *);
+void git_config_set(const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_parse_key(const char *, char **, int *);
+int git_config_key_is_valid(const char *key);
+int git_config_set_multivar_gently(const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
+void git_config_set_multivar(const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
+int git_config_set_multivar_in_file_gently(const char *, const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
+void git_config_set_multivar_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *, const char *, int);
+int git_config_rename_section(const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_rename_section_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_copy_section(const char *, const char *);
+int git_config_copy_section_in_file(const char *, const char *, const char *);
+const char *git_etc_gitconfig(void);
+int git_env_bool(const char *, int);
+unsigned long git_env_ulong(const char *, unsigned long);
+int git_config_system(void);
+int config_error_nonbool(const char *);
 #if defined(__GNUC__)
 #define config_error_nonbool(s) (config_error_nonbool(s), const_error())
 #endif
 
-extern int git_config_parse_parameter(const char *, config_fn_t fn, void *data);
+int git_config_parse_parameter(const char *, config_fn_t fn, void *data);
 
 enum config_scope {
 	CONFIG_SCOPE_UNKNOWN = 0,
@@ -133,9 +133,9 @@ enum config_scope {
 	CONFIG_SCOPE_CMDLINE,
 };
 
-extern enum config_scope current_config_scope(void);
-extern const char *current_config_origin_type(void);
-extern const char *current_config_name(void);
+enum config_scope current_config_scope(void);
+const char *current_config_origin_type(void);
+const char *current_config_name(void);
 
 struct config_include_data {
 	int depth;
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@ struct config_include_data {
 	const struct config_options *opts;
 };
 #define CONFIG_INCLUDE_INIT { 0 }
-extern int git_config_include(const char *name, const char *value, void *data);
+int git_config_include(const char *name, const char *value, void *data);
 
 /*
  * Match and parse a config key of the form:
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ extern int git_config_include(const char *name, const char *value, void *data);
  * If the subsection pointer-to-pointer passed in is NULL, returns 0 only if
  * there is no subsection at all.
  */
-extern int parse_config_key(const char *var,
+int parse_config_key(const char *var,
 			    const char *section,
 			    const char **subsection, int *subsection_len,
 			    const char **key);
@@ -192,71 +192,71 @@ struct config_set {
 	struct configset_list list;
 };
 
-extern void git_configset_init(struct config_set *cs);
-extern int git_configset_add_file(struct config_set *cs, const char *filename);
-extern const struct string_list *git_configset_get_value_multi(struct config_set *cs, const char *key);
-extern void git_configset_clear(struct config_set *cs);
+void git_configset_init(struct config_set *cs);
+int git_configset_add_file(struct config_set *cs, const char *filename);
+const struct string_list *git_configset_get_value_multi(struct config_set *cs, const char *key);
+void git_configset_clear(struct config_set *cs);
 
 /*
  * These functions return 1 if not found, and 0 if found, leaving the found
  * value in the 'dest' pointer.
  */
-extern int git_configset_get_value(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_string_const(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_string(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, char **dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_int(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_ulong(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, unsigned long *dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_bool(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_bool_or_int(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_maybe_bool(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int git_configset_get_pathname(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **dest);
+int git_configset_get_value(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **dest);
+int git_configset_get_string_const(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **dest);
+int git_configset_get_string(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, char **dest);
+int git_configset_get_int(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *dest);
+int git_configset_get_ulong(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, unsigned long *dest);
+int git_configset_get_bool(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *dest);
+int git_configset_get_bool_or_int(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest);
+int git_configset_get_maybe_bool(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, int *dest);
+int git_configset_get_pathname(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **dest);
 
 /* Functions for reading a repository's config */
 struct repository;
-extern void repo_config(struct repository *repo, config_fn_t fn, void *data);
-extern int repo_config_get_value(struct repository *repo,
+void repo_config(struct repository *repo, config_fn_t fn, void *data);
+int repo_config_get_value(struct repository *repo,
 				 const char *key, const char **value);
-extern const struct string_list *repo_config_get_value_multi(struct repository *repo,
+const struct string_list *repo_config_get_value_multi(struct repository *repo,
 							     const char *key);
-extern int repo_config_get_string_const(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_string_const(struct repository *repo,
 					const char *key, const char **dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_string(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_string(struct repository *repo,
 				  const char *key, char **dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_int(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_int(struct repository *repo,
 			       const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_ulong(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_ulong(struct repository *repo,
 				 const char *key, unsigned long *dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_bool(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_bool(struct repository *repo,
 				const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_bool_or_int(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_bool_or_int(struct repository *repo,
 				       const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_maybe_bool(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_maybe_bool(struct repository *repo,
 				      const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int repo_config_get_pathname(struct repository *repo,
+int repo_config_get_pathname(struct repository *repo,
 				    const char *key, const char **dest);
 
-extern int git_config_get_value(const char *key, const char **value);
-extern const struct string_list *git_config_get_value_multi(const char *key);
-extern void git_config_clear(void);
-extern int git_config_get_string_const(const char *key, const char **dest);
-extern int git_config_get_string(const char *key, char **dest);
-extern int git_config_get_int(const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int git_config_get_ulong(const char *key, unsigned long *dest);
-extern int git_config_get_bool(const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int git_config_get_bool_or_int(const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest);
-extern int git_config_get_maybe_bool(const char *key, int *dest);
-extern int git_config_get_pathname(const char *key, const char **dest);
-extern int git_config_get_index_threads(int *dest);
-extern int git_config_get_untracked_cache(void);
-extern int git_config_get_split_index(void);
-extern int git_config_get_max_percent_split_change(void);
-extern int git_config_get_fsmonitor(void);
+int git_config_get_value(const char *key, const char **value);
+const struct string_list *git_config_get_value_multi(const char *key);
+void git_config_clear(void);
+int git_config_get_string_const(const char *key, const char **dest);
+int git_config_get_string(const char *key, char **dest);
+int git_config_get_int(const char *key, int *dest);
+int git_config_get_ulong(const char *key, unsigned long *dest);
+int git_config_get_bool(const char *key, int *dest);
+int git_config_get_bool_or_int(const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest);
+int git_config_get_maybe_bool(const char *key, int *dest);
+int git_config_get_pathname(const char *key, const char **dest);
+int git_config_get_index_threads(int *dest);
+int git_config_get_untracked_cache(void);
+int git_config_get_split_index(void);
+int git_config_get_max_percent_split_change(void);
+int git_config_get_fsmonitor(void);
 
 /* This dies if the configured or default date is in the future */
-extern int git_config_get_expiry(const char *key, const char **output);
+int git_config_get_expiry(const char *key, const char **output);
 
 /* parse either "this many days" integer, or "5.days.ago" approxidate */
-extern int git_config_get_expiry_in_days(const char *key, timestamp_t *, timestamp_t now);
+int git_config_get_expiry_in_days(const char *key, timestamp_t *, timestamp_t now);
 
 struct key_value_info {
 	const char *filename;
@@ -266,7 +266,7 @@ struct key_value_info {
 };
 
 extern NORETURN void git_die_config(const char *key, const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format(printf, 2, 3)));
-extern NORETURN void git_die_config_linenr(const char *key, const char *filename, int linenr);
+NORETURN void git_die_config_linenr(const char *key, const char *filename, int linenr);
 
 #define LOOKUP_CONFIG(mapping, var) \
 	lookup_config(mapping, ARRAY_SIZE(mapping), var)
diff --git a/connect.h b/connect.h
index 32aff60979..61a005603a 100644
--- a/connect.h
+++ b/connect.h
@@ -7,19 +7,19 @@
 #define CONNECT_DIAG_URL      (1u << 1)
 #define CONNECT_IPV4          (1u << 2)
 #define CONNECT_IPV6          (1u << 3)
-extern struct child_process *git_connect(int fd[2], const char *url, const char *prog, int flags);
-extern int finish_connect(struct child_process *conn);
-extern int git_connection_is_socket(struct child_process *conn);
-extern int server_supports(const char *feature);
-extern int parse_feature_request(const char *features, const char *feature);
-extern const char *server_feature_value(const char *feature, int *len_ret);
-extern int url_is_local_not_ssh(const char *url);
+struct child_process *git_connect(int fd[2], const char *url, const char *prog, int flags);
+int finish_connect(struct child_process *conn);
+int git_connection_is_socket(struct child_process *conn);
+int server_supports(const char *feature);
+int parse_feature_request(const char *features, const char *feature);
+const char *server_feature_value(const char *feature, int *len_ret);
+int url_is_local_not_ssh(const char *url);
 
 struct packet_reader;
-extern enum protocol_version discover_version(struct packet_reader *reader);
+enum protocol_version discover_version(struct packet_reader *reader);
 
-extern int server_supports_v2(const char *c, int die_on_error);
-extern int server_supports_feature(const char *c, const char *feature,
+int server_supports_v2(const char *c, int die_on_error);
+int server_supports_feature(const char *c, const char *feature,
 				   int die_on_error);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/csum-file.h b/csum-file.h
index 3bf7184736..a98b1eee53 100644
--- a/csum-file.h
+++ b/csum-file.h
@@ -25,22 +25,22 @@ struct hashfile_checkpoint {
 	git_hash_ctx ctx;
 };
 
-extern void hashfile_checkpoint(struct hashfile *, struct hashfile_checkpoint *);
-extern int hashfile_truncate(struct hashfile *, struct hashfile_checkpoint *);
+void hashfile_checkpoint(struct hashfile *, struct hashfile_checkpoint *);
+int hashfile_truncate(struct hashfile *, struct hashfile_checkpoint *);
 
 /* finalize_hashfile flags */
 #define CSUM_CLOSE		1
 #define CSUM_FSYNC		2
 #define CSUM_HASH_IN_STREAM	4
 
-extern struct hashfile *hashfd(int fd, const char *name);
-extern struct hashfile *hashfd_check(const char *name);
-extern struct hashfile *hashfd_throughput(int fd, const char *name, struct progress *tp);
-extern int finalize_hashfile(struct hashfile *, unsigned char *, unsigned int);
-extern void hashwrite(struct hashfile *, const void *, unsigned int);
-extern void hashflush(struct hashfile *f);
-extern void crc32_begin(struct hashfile *);
-extern uint32_t crc32_end(struct hashfile *);
+struct hashfile *hashfd(int fd, const char *name);
+struct hashfile *hashfd_check(const char *name);
+struct hashfile *hashfd_throughput(int fd, const char *name, struct progress *tp);
+int finalize_hashfile(struct hashfile *, unsigned char *, unsigned int);
+void hashwrite(struct hashfile *, const void *, unsigned int);
+void hashflush(struct hashfile *f);
+void crc32_begin(struct hashfile *);
+uint32_t crc32_end(struct hashfile *);
 
 static inline void hashwrite_u8(struct hashfile *f, uint8_t data)
 {
diff --git a/decorate.h b/decorate.h
index 9014c1e996..ee43dee1f0 100644
--- a/decorate.h
+++ b/decorate.h
@@ -50,12 +50,12 @@ struct decoration {
  * NULL), returning the previously associated pointer. If there is no previous
  * association, this function returns NULL.
  */
-extern void *add_decoration(struct decoration *n, const struct object *obj, void *decoration);
+void *add_decoration(struct decoration *n, const struct object *obj, void *decoration);
 
 /*
  * Return the pointer associated to the given object. If there is no
  * association, this function returns NULL.
  */
-extern void *lookup_decoration(struct decoration *n, const struct object *obj);
+void *lookup_decoration(struct decoration *n, const struct object *obj);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/delta.h b/delta.h
index 9b67531dfa..0fc3659633 100644
--- a/delta.h
+++ b/delta.h
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ struct delta_index;
  * before free_delta_index() is called.  The returned pointer must be freed
  * using free_delta_index().
  */
-extern struct delta_index *
+struct delta_index *
 create_delta_index(const void *buf, unsigned long bufsize);
 
 /*
@@ -21,14 +21,14 @@ create_delta_index(const void *buf, unsigned long bufsize);
  *
  * Given pointer must be what create_delta_index() returned, or NULL.
  */
-extern void free_delta_index(struct delta_index *index);
+void free_delta_index(struct delta_index *index);
 
 /*
  * sizeof_delta_index: returns memory usage of delta index
  *
  * Given pointer must be what create_delta_index() returned, or NULL.
  */
-extern unsigned long sizeof_delta_index(struct delta_index *index);
+unsigned long sizeof_delta_index(struct delta_index *index);
 
 /*
  * create_delta: create a delta from given index for the given buffer
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ extern unsigned long sizeof_delta_index(struct delta_index *index);
  * returned and *delta_size is updated with its size.  The returned buffer
  * must be freed by the caller.
  */
-extern void *
+void *
 create_delta(const struct delta_index *index,
 	     const void *buf, unsigned long bufsize,
 	     unsigned long *delta_size, unsigned long max_delta_size);
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ diff_delta(const void *src_buf, unsigned long src_bufsize,
  * *trg_bufsize is updated with its size.  On failure a NULL pointer is
  * returned.  The returned buffer must be freed by the caller.
  */
-extern void *patch_delta(const void *src_buf, unsigned long src_size,
+void *patch_delta(const void *src_buf, unsigned long src_size,
 			 const void *delta_buf, unsigned long delta_size,
 			 unsigned long *dst_size);
 
diff --git a/dir.h b/dir.h
index e3ec26143d..4c227cc3dc 100644
--- a/dir.h
+++ b/dir.h
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ struct dir_struct {
 };
 
 /*Count the number of slashes for string s*/
-extern int count_slashes(const char *s);
+int count_slashes(const char *s);
 
 /*
  * The ordering of these constants is significant, with
@@ -213,24 +213,24 @@ extern int count_slashes(const char *s);
 #define MATCHED_RECURSIVELY 1
 #define MATCHED_FNMATCH 2
 #define MATCHED_EXACTLY 3
-extern int simple_length(const char *match);
-extern int no_wildcard(const char *string);
-extern char *common_prefix(const struct pathspec *pathspec);
-extern int match_pathspec(const struct index_state *istate,
+int simple_length(const char *match);
+int no_wildcard(const char *string);
+char *common_prefix(const struct pathspec *pathspec);
+int match_pathspec(const struct index_state *istate,
 			  const struct pathspec *pathspec,
 			  const char *name, int namelen,
 			  int prefix, char *seen, int is_dir);
-extern int report_path_error(const char *ps_matched, const struct pathspec *pathspec, const char *prefix);
-extern int within_depth(const char *name, int namelen, int depth, int max_depth);
+int report_path_error(const char *ps_matched, const struct pathspec *pathspec, const char *prefix);
+int within_depth(const char *name, int namelen, int depth, int max_depth);
 
-extern int fill_directory(struct dir_struct *dir,
+int fill_directory(struct dir_struct *dir,
 			  struct index_state *istate,
 			  const struct pathspec *pathspec);
-extern int read_directory(struct dir_struct *, struct index_state *istate,
+int read_directory(struct dir_struct *, struct index_state *istate,
 			  const char *path, int len,
 			  const struct pathspec *pathspec);
 
-extern int is_excluded_from_list(const char *pathname, int pathlen,
+int is_excluded_from_list(const char *pathname, int pathlen,
 				 const char *basename, int *dtype,
 				 struct exclude_list *el,
 				 struct index_state *istate);
@@ -242,37 +242,37 @@ struct dir_entry *dir_add_ignored(struct dir_struct *dir,
  * these implement the matching logic for dir.c:excluded_from_list and
  * attr.c:path_matches()
  */
-extern int match_basename(const char *, int,
+int match_basename(const char *, int,
 			  const char *, int, int, unsigned);
-extern int match_pathname(const char *, int,
+int match_pathname(const char *, int,
 			  const char *, int,
 			  const char *, int, int, unsigned);
 
-extern struct exclude *last_exclude_matching(struct dir_struct *dir,
+struct exclude *last_exclude_matching(struct dir_struct *dir,
 					     struct index_state *istate,
 					     const char *name, int *dtype);
 
-extern int is_excluded(struct dir_struct *dir,
+int is_excluded(struct dir_struct *dir,
 		       struct index_state *istate,
 		       const char *name, int *dtype);
 
-extern struct exclude_list *add_exclude_list(struct dir_struct *dir,
+struct exclude_list *add_exclude_list(struct dir_struct *dir,
 					     int group_type, const char *src);
-extern int add_excludes_from_file_to_list(const char *fname, const char *base, int baselen,
+int add_excludes_from_file_to_list(const char *fname, const char *base, int baselen,
 					  struct exclude_list *el, struct  index_state *istate);
-extern void add_excludes_from_file(struct dir_struct *, const char *fname);
-extern int add_excludes_from_blob_to_list(struct object_id *oid,
+void add_excludes_from_file(struct dir_struct *, const char *fname);
+int add_excludes_from_blob_to_list(struct object_id *oid,
 					  const char *base, int baselen,
 					  struct exclude_list *el);
-extern void parse_exclude_pattern(const char **string, int *patternlen, unsigned *flags, int *nowildcardlen);
-extern void add_exclude(const char *string, const char *base,
+void parse_exclude_pattern(const char **string, int *patternlen, unsigned *flags, int *nowildcardlen);
+void add_exclude(const char *string, const char *base,
 			int baselen, struct exclude_list *el, int srcpos);
-extern void clear_exclude_list(struct exclude_list *el);
-extern void clear_directory(struct dir_struct *dir);
-extern int file_exists(const char *);
+void clear_exclude_list(struct exclude_list *el);
+void clear_directory(struct dir_struct *dir);
+int file_exists(const char *);
 
-extern int is_inside_dir(const char *dir);
-extern int dir_inside_of(const char *subdir, const char *dir);
+int is_inside_dir(const char *dir);
+int dir_inside_of(const char *subdir, const char *dir);
 
 static inline int is_dot_or_dotdot(const char *name)
 {
@@ -281,9 +281,9 @@ static inline int is_dot_or_dotdot(const char *name)
 		 (name[1] == '.' && name[2] == '\0')));
 }
 
-extern int is_empty_dir(const char *dir);
+int is_empty_dir(const char *dir);
 
-extern void setup_standard_excludes(struct dir_struct *dir);
+void setup_standard_excludes(struct dir_struct *dir);
 
 
 /* Constants for remove_dir_recursively: */
@@ -311,23 +311,23 @@ extern void setup_standard_excludes(struct dir_struct *dir);
  * This function uses path as temporary scratch space, but restores it
  * before returning.
  */
-extern int remove_dir_recursively(struct strbuf *path, int flag);
+int remove_dir_recursively(struct strbuf *path, int flag);
 
 /* tries to remove the path with empty directories along it, ignores ENOENT */
-extern int remove_path(const char *path);
+int remove_path(const char *path);
 
-extern int fspathcmp(const char *a, const char *b);
-extern int fspathncmp(const char *a, const char *b, size_t count);
+int fspathcmp(const char *a, const char *b);
+int fspathncmp(const char *a, const char *b, size_t count);
 
 /*
  * The prefix part of pattern must not contains wildcards.
  */
 struct pathspec_item;
-extern int git_fnmatch(const struct pathspec_item *item,
+int git_fnmatch(const struct pathspec_item *item,
 		       const char *pattern, const char *string,
 		       int prefix);
 
-extern int submodule_path_match(const struct index_state *istate,
+int submodule_path_match(const struct index_state *istate,
 				const struct pathspec *ps,
 				const char *submodule_name,
 				char *seen);
@@ -372,10 +372,10 @@ void remove_untracked_cache(struct index_state *istate);
  * When `recurse_into_nested` is set, recurse into any nested submodules,
  * connecting them as well.
  */
-extern void connect_work_tree_and_git_dir(const char *work_tree,
+void connect_work_tree_and_git_dir(const char *work_tree,
 					  const char *git_dir,
 					  int recurse_into_nested);
-extern void relocate_gitdir(const char *path,
+void relocate_gitdir(const char *path,
 			    const char *old_git_dir,
 			    const char *new_git_dir);
 #endif
diff --git a/exec-cmd.h b/exec-cmd.h
index 2522453cda..bddf5cb934 100644
--- a/exec-cmd.h
+++ b/exec-cmd.h
@@ -3,14 +3,14 @@
 
 struct argv_array;
 
-extern void git_set_exec_path(const char *exec_path);
-extern void git_resolve_executable_dir(const char *path);
-extern const char *git_exec_path(void);
-extern void setup_path(void);
-extern const char **prepare_git_cmd(struct argv_array *out, const char **argv);
-extern int execv_git_cmd(const char **argv); /* NULL terminated */
+void git_set_exec_path(const char *exec_path);
+void git_resolve_executable_dir(const char *path);
+const char *git_exec_path(void);
+void setup_path(void);
+const char **prepare_git_cmd(struct argv_array *out, const char **argv);
+int execv_git_cmd(const char **argv); /* NULL terminated */
 LAST_ARG_MUST_BE_NULL
 extern int execl_git_cmd(const char *cmd, ...);
-extern char *system_path(const char *path);
+char *system_path(const char *path);
 
 #endif /* GIT_EXEC_CMD_H */
diff --git a/fmt-merge-msg.h b/fmt-merge-msg.h
index b28d3a6113..01e3aa88c5 100644
--- a/fmt-merge-msg.h
+++ b/fmt-merge-msg.h
@@ -2,6 +2,6 @@
 #define FMT_MERGE_MSG_H
 
 extern int merge_log_config;
-extern int fmt_merge_msg_config(const char *key, const char *value, void *cb);
+int fmt_merge_msg_config(const char *key, const char *value, void *cb);
 
 #endif /* FMT_MERGE_MSG_H */
diff --git a/fsmonitor.h b/fsmonitor.h
index 01017c43aa..8489fa3244 100644
--- a/fsmonitor.h
+++ b/fsmonitor.h
@@ -10,31 +10,31 @@ extern struct trace_key trace_fsmonitor;
  * Read the fsmonitor index extension and (if configured) restore the
  * CE_FSMONITOR_VALID state.
  */
-extern int read_fsmonitor_extension(struct index_state *istate, const void *data, unsigned long sz);
+int read_fsmonitor_extension(struct index_state *istate, const void *data, unsigned long sz);
 
 /*
  * Fill the fsmonitor_dirty ewah bits with their state from the index,
  * before it is split during writing.
  */
-extern void fill_fsmonitor_bitmap(struct index_state *istate);
+void fill_fsmonitor_bitmap(struct index_state *istate);
 
 /*
  * Write the CE_FSMONITOR_VALID state into the fsmonitor index
  * extension.  Reads from the fsmonitor_dirty ewah in the index.
  */
-extern void write_fsmonitor_extension(struct strbuf *sb, struct index_state *istate);
+void write_fsmonitor_extension(struct strbuf *sb, struct index_state *istate);
 
 /*
  * Add/remove the fsmonitor index extension
  */
-extern void add_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
-extern void remove_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
+void add_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
+void remove_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
 
 /*
  * Add/remove the fsmonitor index extension as necessary based on the current
  * core.fsmonitor setting.
  */
-extern void tweak_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
+void tweak_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
 
 /*
  * Run the configured fsmonitor integration script and clear the
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ extern void tweak_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
  * any corresponding untracked cache directory structures. Optimized to only
  * run the first time it is called.
  */
-extern void refresh_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
+void refresh_fsmonitor(struct index_state *istate);
 
 /*
  * Set the given cache entries CE_FSMONITOR_VALID bit. This should be
diff --git a/gettext.h b/gettext.h
index 71255e503e..bee52eb113 100644
--- a/gettext.h
+++ b/gettext.h
@@ -28,11 +28,11 @@
 
 #define FORMAT_PRESERVING(n) __attribute__((format_arg(n)))
 
-extern int use_gettext_poison(void);
+int use_gettext_poison(void);
 
 #ifndef NO_GETTEXT
-extern void git_setup_gettext(void);
-extern int gettext_width(const char *s);
+void git_setup_gettext(void);
+int gettext_width(const char *s);
 #else
 static inline void git_setup_gettext(void)
 {
@@ -87,6 +87,6 @@ const char *Q_(const char *msgid, const char *plu, unsigned long n)
 #endif
 
 const char *get_preferred_languages(void);
-extern int is_utf8_locale(void);
+int is_utf8_locale(void);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index 31b47932bd..337bc9a7c3 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -249,7 +249,7 @@ typedef unsigned long uintptr_t;
 
 #ifdef MKDIR_WO_TRAILING_SLASH
 #define mkdir(a,b) compat_mkdir_wo_trailing_slash((a),(b))
-extern int compat_mkdir_wo_trailing_slash(const char*, mode_t);
+int compat_mkdir_wo_trailing_slash(const char*, mode_t);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_STRUCT_ITIMERVAL
@@ -267,9 +267,9 @@ struct itimerval {
 #include <libgen.h>
 #else
 #define basename gitbasename
-extern char *gitbasename(char *);
+char *gitbasename(char *);
 #define dirname gitdirname
-extern char *gitdirname(char *);
+char *gitdirname(char *);
 #endif
 
 #ifndef NO_ICONV
@@ -446,8 +446,8 @@ static inline char *git_find_last_dir_sep(const char *path)
 struct strbuf;
 
 /* General helper functions */
-extern void vreportf(const char *prefix, const char *err, va_list params);
-extern NORETURN void usage(const char *err);
+void vreportf(const char *prefix, const char *err, va_list params);
+NORETURN void usage(const char *err);
 extern NORETURN void usagef(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern NORETURN void die(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern NORETURN void die_errno(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
@@ -482,15 +482,15 @@ static inline int const_error(void)
 #define error_errno(...) (error_errno(__VA_ARGS__), const_error())
 #endif
 
-extern void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
-extern void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
+void set_die_routine(NORETURN_PTR void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
+void set_error_routine(void (*routine)(const char *err, va_list params));
 extern void (*get_error_routine(void))(const char *err, va_list params);
-extern void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params));
+void set_warn_routine(void (*routine)(const char *warn, va_list params));
 extern void (*get_warn_routine(void))(const char *warn, va_list params);
-extern void set_die_is_recursing_routine(int (*routine)(void));
+void set_die_is_recursing_routine(int (*routine)(void));
 
-extern int starts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);
-extern int istarts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);
+int starts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);
+int istarts_with(const char *str, const char *prefix);
 
 /*
  * If the string "str" begins with the string found in "prefix", return 1.
@@ -613,8 +613,8 @@ static inline int ends_with(const char *str, const char *suffix)
 
 #define mmap git_mmap
 #define munmap git_munmap
-extern void *git_mmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
-extern int git_munmap(void *start, size_t length);
+void *git_mmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
+int git_munmap(void *start, size_t length);
 
 #else /* NO_MMAP || USE_WIN32_MMAP */
 
@@ -668,17 +668,17 @@ extern int git_munmap(void *start, size_t length);
 #undef stat
 #endif
 #define stat(path, buf) git_stat(path, buf)
-extern int git_stat(const char *, struct stat *);
+int git_stat(const char *, struct stat *);
 #ifdef fstat
 #undef fstat
 #endif
 #define fstat(fd, buf) git_fstat(fd, buf)
-extern int git_fstat(int, struct stat *);
+int git_fstat(int, struct stat *);
 #ifdef lstat
 #undef lstat
 #endif
 #define lstat(path, buf) git_lstat(path, buf)
-extern int git_lstat(const char *, struct stat *);
+int git_lstat(const char *, struct stat *);
 #endif
 
 #define DEFAULT_PACKED_GIT_LIMIT \
@@ -686,50 +686,50 @@ extern int git_lstat(const char *, struct stat *);
 
 #ifdef NO_PREAD
 #define pread git_pread
-extern ssize_t git_pread(int fd, void *buf, size_t count, off_t offset);
+ssize_t git_pread(int fd, void *buf, size_t count, off_t offset);
 #endif
 /*
  * Forward decl that will remind us if its twin in cache.h changes.
  * This function is used in compat/pread.c.  But we can't include
  * cache.h there.
  */
-extern ssize_t read_in_full(int fd, void *buf, size_t count);
+ssize_t read_in_full(int fd, void *buf, size_t count);
 
 #ifdef NO_SETENV
 #define setenv gitsetenv
-extern int gitsetenv(const char *, const char *, int);
+int gitsetenv(const char *, const char *, int);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_MKDTEMP
 #define mkdtemp gitmkdtemp
-extern char *gitmkdtemp(char *);
+char *gitmkdtemp(char *);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_UNSETENV
 #define unsetenv gitunsetenv
-extern void gitunsetenv(const char *);
+void gitunsetenv(const char *);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_STRCASESTR
 #define strcasestr gitstrcasestr
-extern char *gitstrcasestr(const char *haystack, const char *needle);
+char *gitstrcasestr(const char *haystack, const char *needle);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_STRLCPY
 #define strlcpy gitstrlcpy
-extern size_t gitstrlcpy(char *, const char *, size_t);
+size_t gitstrlcpy(char *, const char *, size_t);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_STRTOUMAX
 #define strtoumax gitstrtoumax
-extern uintmax_t gitstrtoumax(const char *, char **, int);
+uintmax_t gitstrtoumax(const char *, char **, int);
 #define strtoimax gitstrtoimax
-extern intmax_t gitstrtoimax(const char *, char **, int);
+intmax_t gitstrtoimax(const char *, char **, int);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_HSTRERROR
 #define hstrerror githstrerror
-extern const char *githstrerror(int herror);
+const char *githstrerror(int herror);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NO_MEMMEM
@@ -761,7 +761,7 @@ char *gitstrdup(const char *s);
 #  endif
 #  define fopen(a,b) git_fopen(a,b)
 # endif
-extern FILE *git_fopen(const char*, const char*);
+FILE *git_fopen(const char*, const char*);
 #endif
 
 #ifdef SNPRINTF_RETURNS_BOGUS
@@ -775,7 +775,7 @@ extern int git_snprintf(char *str, size_t maxsize,
 #undef vsnprintf
 #endif
 #define vsnprintf git_vsnprintf
-extern int git_vsnprintf(char *str, size_t maxsize,
+int git_vsnprintf(char *str, size_t maxsize,
 			 const char *format, va_list ap);
 #endif
 
@@ -805,11 +805,11 @@ const char *inet_ntop(int af, const void *src, char *dst, size_t size);
 
 #ifdef NO_PTHREADS
 #define atexit git_atexit
-extern int git_atexit(void (*handler)(void));
+int git_atexit(void (*handler)(void));
 #endif
 
 typedef void (*try_to_free_t)(size_t);
-extern try_to_free_t set_try_to_free_routine(try_to_free_t);
+try_to_free_t set_try_to_free_routine(try_to_free_t);
 
 static inline size_t st_add(size_t a, size_t b)
 {
@@ -845,28 +845,28 @@ static inline size_t st_sub(size_t a, size_t b)
 # define xalloca(size)      (xmalloc(size))
 # define xalloca_free(p)    (free(p))
 #endif
-extern char *xstrdup(const char *str);
-extern void *xmalloc(size_t size);
-extern void *xmallocz(size_t size);
-extern void *xmallocz_gently(size_t size);
-extern void *xmemdupz(const void *data, size_t len);
-extern char *xstrndup(const char *str, size_t len);
-extern void *xrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
-extern void *xcalloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
-extern void *xmmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
-extern void *xmmap_gently(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
+char *xstrdup(const char *str);
+void *xmalloc(size_t size);
+void *xmallocz(size_t size);
+void *xmallocz_gently(size_t size);
+void *xmemdupz(const void *data, size_t len);
+char *xstrndup(const char *str, size_t len);
+void *xrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
+void *xcalloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
+void *xmmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
+void *xmmap_gently(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
 extern int xopen(const char *path, int flags, ...);
-extern ssize_t xread(int fd, void *buf, size_t len);
-extern ssize_t xwrite(int fd, const void *buf, size_t len);
-extern ssize_t xpread(int fd, void *buf, size_t len, off_t offset);
-extern int xdup(int fd);
-extern FILE *xfopen(const char *path, const char *mode);
-extern FILE *xfdopen(int fd, const char *mode);
-extern int xmkstemp(char *temp_filename);
-extern int xmkstemp_mode(char *temp_filename, int mode);
-extern char *xgetcwd(void);
-extern FILE *fopen_for_writing(const char *path);
-extern FILE *fopen_or_warn(const char *path, const char *mode);
+ssize_t xread(int fd, void *buf, size_t len);
+ssize_t xwrite(int fd, const void *buf, size_t len);
+ssize_t xpread(int fd, void *buf, size_t len, off_t offset);
+int xdup(int fd);
+FILE *xfopen(const char *path, const char *mode);
+FILE *xfdopen(int fd, const char *mode);
+int xmkstemp(char *temp_filename);
+int xmkstemp_mode(char *temp_filename, int mode);
+char *xgetcwd(void);
+FILE *fopen_for_writing(const char *path);
+FILE *fopen_or_warn(const char *path, const char *mode);
 
 /*
  * FREE_AND_NULL(ptr) is like free(ptr) followed by ptr = NULL. Note
@@ -972,7 +972,7 @@ extern int xsnprintf(char *dst, size_t max, const char *fmt, ...);
 #define HOST_NAME_MAX 256
 #endif
 
-extern int xgethostname(char *buf, size_t len);
+int xgethostname(char *buf, size_t len);
 
 /* in ctype.c, for kwset users */
 extern const unsigned char tolower_trans_tbl[256];
@@ -1257,7 +1257,7 @@ static inline int is_missing_file_error(int errno_)
 	return (errno_ == ENOENT || errno_ == ENOTDIR);
 }
 
-extern int cmd_main(int, const char **);
+int cmd_main(int, const char **);
 
 /*
  * Intercept all calls to exit() and route them to trace2 to
@@ -1280,7 +1280,7 @@ int trace2_cmd_exit_fl(const char *file, int line, int code);
  * an annotation, and does nothing in non-leak-checking builds.
  */
 #ifdef SUPPRESS_ANNOTATED_LEAKS
-extern void unleak_memory(const void *ptr, size_t len);
+void unleak_memory(const void *ptr, size_t len);
 #define UNLEAK(var) unleak_memory(&(var), sizeof(var))
 #else
 #define UNLEAK(var) do {} while (0)
diff --git a/grep.h b/grep.h
index fb04893721..1875880f37 100644
--- a/grep.h
+++ b/grep.h
@@ -186,17 +186,17 @@ struct grep_opt {
 	void *output_priv;
 };
 
-extern void init_grep_defaults(struct repository *);
-extern int grep_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *);
-extern void grep_init(struct grep_opt *, struct repository *repo, const char *prefix);
+void init_grep_defaults(struct repository *);
+int grep_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *);
+void grep_init(struct grep_opt *, struct repository *repo, const char *prefix);
 void grep_commit_pattern_type(enum grep_pattern_type, struct grep_opt *opt);
 
-extern void append_grep_pat(struct grep_opt *opt, const char *pat, size_t patlen, const char *origin, int no, enum grep_pat_token t);
-extern void append_grep_pattern(struct grep_opt *opt, const char *pat, const char *origin, int no, enum grep_pat_token t);
-extern void append_header_grep_pattern(struct grep_opt *, enum grep_header_field, const char *);
-extern void compile_grep_patterns(struct grep_opt *opt);
-extern void free_grep_patterns(struct grep_opt *opt);
-extern int grep_buffer(struct grep_opt *opt, char *buf, unsigned long size);
+void append_grep_pat(struct grep_opt *opt, const char *pat, size_t patlen, const char *origin, int no, enum grep_pat_token t);
+void append_grep_pattern(struct grep_opt *opt, const char *pat, const char *origin, int no, enum grep_pat_token t);
+void append_header_grep_pattern(struct grep_opt *, enum grep_header_field, const char *);
+void compile_grep_patterns(struct grep_opt *opt);
+void free_grep_patterns(struct grep_opt *opt);
+int grep_buffer(struct grep_opt *opt, char *buf, unsigned long size);
 
 struct grep_source {
 	char *name;
@@ -226,8 +226,8 @@ void grep_source_load_driver(struct grep_source *gs,
 
 int grep_source(struct grep_opt *opt, struct grep_source *gs);
 
-extern struct grep_opt *grep_opt_dup(const struct grep_opt *opt);
-extern int grep_threads_ok(const struct grep_opt *opt);
+struct grep_opt *grep_opt_dup(const struct grep_opt *opt);
+int grep_threads_ok(const struct grep_opt *opt);
 
 /*
  * Mutex used around access to the attributes machinery if
diff --git a/hashmap.h b/hashmap.h
index d375d9cce7..f95593b6cf 100644
--- a/hashmap.h
+++ b/hashmap.h
@@ -104,11 +104,11 @@
  * `memihash_cont` is a variant of `memihash` that allows a computation to be
  * continued with another chunk of data.
  */
-extern unsigned int strhash(const char *buf);
-extern unsigned int strihash(const char *buf);
-extern unsigned int memhash(const void *buf, size_t len);
-extern unsigned int memihash(const void *buf, size_t len);
-extern unsigned int memihash_cont(unsigned int hash_seed, const void *buf, size_t len);
+unsigned int strhash(const char *buf);
+unsigned int strihash(const char *buf);
+unsigned int memhash(const void *buf, size_t len);
+unsigned int memihash(const void *buf, size_t len);
+unsigned int memihash_cont(unsigned int hash_seed, const void *buf, size_t len);
 
 /*
  * Converts a cryptographic hash (e.g. SHA-1) into an int-sized hash code
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ struct hashmap {
  * parameter may be used to preallocate a sufficiently large table and thus
  * prevent expensive resizing. If 0, the table is dynamically resized.
  */
-extern void hashmap_init(struct hashmap *map,
+void hashmap_init(struct hashmap *map,
 			 hashmap_cmp_fn equals_function,
 			 const void *equals_function_data,
 			 size_t initial_size);
@@ -227,7 +227,7 @@ extern void hashmap_init(struct hashmap *map,
  * If `free_entries` is true, each hashmap_entry in the map is freed as well
  * using stdlibs free().
  */
-extern void hashmap_free(struct hashmap *map, int free_entries);
+void hashmap_free(struct hashmap *map, int free_entries);
 
 /* hashmap_entry functions */
 
@@ -284,7 +284,7 @@ static inline unsigned int hashmap_get_size(struct hashmap *map)
  * If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are passed
  * to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
  */
-extern void *hashmap_get(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key,
+void *hashmap_get(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key,
 			 const void *keydata);
 
 /*
@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@ static inline void *hashmap_get_from_hash(const struct hashmap *map,
  * `entry` is the hashmap_entry to start the search from, obtained via a previous
  * call to `hashmap_get` or `hashmap_get_next`.
  */
-extern void *hashmap_get_next(const struct hashmap *map, const void *entry);
+void *hashmap_get_next(const struct hashmap *map, const void *entry);
 
 /*
  * Adds a hashmap entry. This allows to add duplicate entries (i.e.
@@ -325,7 +325,7 @@ extern void *hashmap_get_next(const struct hashmap *map, const void *entry);
  * `map` is the hashmap structure.
  * `entry` is the entry to add.
  */
-extern void hashmap_add(struct hashmap *map, void *entry);
+void hashmap_add(struct hashmap *map, void *entry);
 
 /*
  * Adds or replaces a hashmap entry. If the hashmap contains duplicate
@@ -335,7 +335,7 @@ extern void hashmap_add(struct hashmap *map, void *entry);
  * `entry` is the entry to add or replace.
  * Returns the replaced entry, or NULL if not found (i.e. the entry was added).
  */
-extern void *hashmap_put(struct hashmap *map, void *entry);
+void *hashmap_put(struct hashmap *map, void *entry);
 
 /*
  * Removes a hashmap entry matching the specified key. If the hashmap contains
@@ -344,7 +344,7 @@ extern void *hashmap_put(struct hashmap *map, void *entry);
  *
  * Argument explanation is the same as in `hashmap_get`.
  */
-extern void *hashmap_remove(struct hashmap *map, const void *key,
+void *hashmap_remove(struct hashmap *map, const void *key,
 		const void *keydata);
 
 /*
@@ -365,10 +365,10 @@ struct hashmap_iter {
 };
 
 /* Initializes a `hashmap_iter` structure. */
-extern void hashmap_iter_init(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter);
+void hashmap_iter_init(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter);
 
 /* Returns the next hashmap_entry, or NULL if there are no more entries. */
-extern void *hashmap_iter_next(struct hashmap_iter *iter);
+void *hashmap_iter_next(struct hashmap_iter *iter);
 
 /* Initializes the iterator and returns the first entry, if any. */
 static inline void *hashmap_iter_first(struct hashmap *map,
@@ -429,7 +429,7 @@ static inline void hashmap_enable_item_counting(struct hashmap *map)
  *
  * Uses a hashmap to store the pool of interned strings.
  */
-extern const void *memintern(const void *data, size_t len);
+const void *memintern(const void *data, size_t len);
 static inline const char *strintern(const char *string)
 {
 	return memintern(string, strlen(string));
diff --git a/help.h b/help.h
index a141e209ae..ca004a7a7d 100644
--- a/help.h
+++ b/help.h
@@ -19,31 +19,31 @@ static inline void mput_char(char c, unsigned int num)
 		putchar(c);
 }
 
-extern void list_common_cmds_help(void);
-extern void list_all_cmds_help(void);
-extern void list_common_guides_help(void);
-extern void list_config_help(int for_human);
+void list_common_cmds_help(void);
+void list_all_cmds_help(void);
+void list_common_guides_help(void);
+void list_config_help(int for_human);
 
-extern void list_all_main_cmds(struct string_list *list);
-extern void list_all_other_cmds(struct string_list *list);
-extern void list_cmds_by_category(struct string_list *list,
+void list_all_main_cmds(struct string_list *list);
+void list_all_other_cmds(struct string_list *list);
+void list_cmds_by_category(struct string_list *list,
 				  const char *category);
-extern void list_cmds_by_config(struct string_list *list);
-extern const char *help_unknown_cmd(const char *cmd);
-extern void load_command_list(const char *prefix,
+void list_cmds_by_config(struct string_list *list);
+const char *help_unknown_cmd(const char *cmd);
+void load_command_list(const char *prefix,
 			      struct cmdnames *main_cmds,
 			      struct cmdnames *other_cmds);
-extern void add_cmdname(struct cmdnames *cmds, const char *name, int len);
+void add_cmdname(struct cmdnames *cmds, const char *name, int len);
 /* Here we require that excludes is a sorted list. */
-extern void exclude_cmds(struct cmdnames *cmds, struct cmdnames *excludes);
-extern int is_in_cmdlist(struct cmdnames *cmds, const char *name);
-extern void list_commands(unsigned int colopts, struct cmdnames *main_cmds, struct cmdnames *other_cmds);
+void exclude_cmds(struct cmdnames *cmds, struct cmdnames *excludes);
+int is_in_cmdlist(struct cmdnames *cmds, const char *name);
+void list_commands(unsigned int colopts, struct cmdnames *main_cmds, struct cmdnames *other_cmds);
 
 /*
  * call this to die(), when it is suspected that the user mistyped a
  * ref to the command, to give suggested "correct" refs.
  */
-extern void help_unknown_ref(const char *ref, const char *cmd, const char *error);
+void help_unknown_ref(const char *ref, const char *cmd, const char *error);
 
 static inline void list_config_item(struct string_list *list,
 				    const char *prefix,
diff --git a/http.h b/http.h
index 4eb4e808e5..f9e3be5b92 100644
--- a/http.h
+++ b/http.h
@@ -75,18 +75,18 @@ struct buffer {
 };
 
 /* Curl request read/write callbacks */
-extern size_t fread_buffer(char *ptr, size_t eltsize, size_t nmemb, void *strbuf);
-extern size_t fwrite_buffer(char *ptr, size_t eltsize, size_t nmemb, void *strbuf);
-extern size_t fwrite_null(char *ptr, size_t eltsize, size_t nmemb, void *strbuf);
+size_t fread_buffer(char *ptr, size_t eltsize, size_t nmemb, void *strbuf);
+size_t fwrite_buffer(char *ptr, size_t eltsize, size_t nmemb, void *strbuf);
+size_t fwrite_null(char *ptr, size_t eltsize, size_t nmemb, void *strbuf);
 #ifndef NO_CURL_IOCTL
-extern curlioerr ioctl_buffer(CURL *handle, int cmd, void *clientp);
+curlioerr ioctl_buffer(CURL *handle, int cmd, void *clientp);
 #endif
 
 /* Slot lifecycle functions */
-extern struct active_request_slot *get_active_slot(void);
-extern int start_active_slot(struct active_request_slot *slot);
-extern void run_active_slot(struct active_request_slot *slot);
-extern void finish_all_active_slots(void);
+struct active_request_slot *get_active_slot(void);
+int start_active_slot(struct active_request_slot *slot);
+void run_active_slot(struct active_request_slot *slot);
+void finish_all_active_slots(void);
 
 /*
  * This will run one slot to completion in a blocking manner, similar to how
@@ -98,15 +98,15 @@ int run_one_slot(struct active_request_slot *slot,
 		 struct slot_results *results);
 
 #ifdef USE_CURL_MULTI
-extern void fill_active_slots(void);
-extern void add_fill_function(void *data, int (*fill)(void *));
-extern void step_active_slots(void);
+void fill_active_slots(void);
+void add_fill_function(void *data, int (*fill)(void *));
+void step_active_slots(void);
 #endif
 
-extern void http_init(struct remote *remote, const char *url,
+void http_init(struct remote *remote, const char *url,
 		      int proactive_auth);
-extern void http_cleanup(void);
-extern struct curl_slist *http_copy_default_headers(void);
+void http_cleanup(void);
+struct curl_slist *http_copy_default_headers(void);
 
 extern long int git_curl_ipresolve;
 extern int active_requests;
@@ -137,10 +137,10 @@ static inline int missing__target(int code, int result)
 #define missing_target(a) missing__target((a)->http_code, (a)->curl_result)
 
 /* Helpers for modifying and creating URLs */
-extern void append_remote_object_url(struct strbuf *buf, const char *url,
+void append_remote_object_url(struct strbuf *buf, const char *url,
 				     const char *hex,
 				     int only_two_digit_prefix);
-extern char *get_remote_object_url(const char *url, const char *hex,
+char *get_remote_object_url(const char *url, const char *hex,
 				   int only_two_digit_prefix);
 
 /* Options for http_get_*() */
@@ -195,10 +195,10 @@ struct http_get_options {
  */
 int http_get_strbuf(const char *url, struct strbuf *result, struct http_get_options *options);
 
-extern int http_fetch_ref(const char *base, struct ref *ref);
+int http_fetch_ref(const char *base, struct ref *ref);
 
 /* Helpers for fetching packs */
-extern int http_get_info_packs(const char *base_url,
+int http_get_info_packs(const char *base_url,
 	struct packed_git **packs_head);
 
 struct http_pack_request {
@@ -210,10 +210,10 @@ struct http_pack_request {
 	struct active_request_slot *slot;
 };
 
-extern struct http_pack_request *new_http_pack_request(
+struct http_pack_request *new_http_pack_request(
 	struct packed_git *target, const char *base_url);
-extern int finish_http_pack_request(struct http_pack_request *preq);
-extern void release_http_pack_request(struct http_pack_request *preq);
+int finish_http_pack_request(struct http_pack_request *preq);
+void release_http_pack_request(struct http_pack_request *preq);
 
 /* Helpers for fetching object */
 struct http_object_request {
@@ -232,12 +232,12 @@ struct http_object_request {
 	struct active_request_slot *slot;
 };
 
-extern struct http_object_request *new_http_object_request(
+struct http_object_request *new_http_object_request(
 	const char *base_url, const struct object_id *oid);
-extern void process_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
-extern int finish_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
-extern void abort_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
-extern void release_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
+void process_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
+int finish_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
+void abort_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
+void release_http_object_request(struct http_object_request *freq);
 
 /* setup routine for curl_easy_setopt CURLOPT_DEBUGFUNCTION */
 void setup_curl_trace(CURL *handle);
diff --git a/kwset.h b/kwset.h
index 583f6268ef..df99a92178 100644
--- a/kwset.h
+++ b/kwset.h
@@ -37,16 +37,16 @@ typedef struct kwset_t* kwset_t;
    if enough memory cannot be obtained.  The argument if non-NULL
    specifies a table of character translations to be applied to all
    pattern and search text. */
-extern kwset_t kwsalloc(unsigned char const *);
+kwset_t kwsalloc(unsigned char const *);
 
 /* Incrementally extend the keyword set to include the given string.
    Return NULL for success, or an error message.  Remember an index
    number for each keyword included in the set. */
-extern const char *kwsincr(kwset_t, char const *, size_t);
+const char *kwsincr(kwset_t, char const *, size_t);
 
 /* When the keyword set has been completely built, prepare it for
    use.  Return NULL for success, or an error message. */
-extern const char *kwsprep(kwset_t);
+const char *kwsprep(kwset_t);
 
 /* Search through the given buffer for a member of the keyword set.
    Return a pointer to the leftmost longest match found, or NULL if
@@ -54,8 +54,8 @@ extern const char *kwsprep(kwset_t);
    the matching substring in the integer it points to.  Similarly,
    if foundindex is non-NULL, store the index of the particular
    keyword found therein. */
-extern size_t kwsexec(kwset_t, char const *, size_t, struct kwsmatch *);
+size_t kwsexec(kwset_t, char const *, size_t, struct kwsmatch *);
 
 /* Deallocate the given keyword set and all its associated storage. */
-extern void kwsfree(kwset_t);
+void kwsfree(kwset_t);
 
diff --git a/line-log.h b/line-log.h
index e2a5ee7c6d..8ee7a2bd4a 100644
--- a/line-log.h
+++ b/line-log.h
@@ -25,17 +25,17 @@ struct diff_ranges {
 	struct range_set target;
 };
 
-extern void range_set_init(struct range_set *, size_t prealloc);
-extern void range_set_release(struct range_set *);
+void range_set_init(struct range_set *, size_t prealloc);
+void range_set_release(struct range_set *);
 /* Range includes start; excludes end */
-extern void range_set_append_unsafe(struct range_set *, long start, long end);
+void range_set_append_unsafe(struct range_set *, long start, long end);
 /* New range must begin at or after end of last added range */
-extern void range_set_append(struct range_set *, long start, long end);
+void range_set_append(struct range_set *, long start, long end);
 /*
  * In-place pass of sorting and merging the ranges in the range set,
  * to sort and make the ranges disjoint.
  */
-extern void sort_and_merge_range_set(struct range_set *);
+void sort_and_merge_range_set(struct range_set *);
 
 /* Linked list of interesting files and their associated ranges.  The
  * list must be kept sorted by path.
@@ -54,10 +54,10 @@ struct line_log_data {
 	struct diff_ranges diff;
 };
 
-extern void line_log_init(struct rev_info *rev, const char *prefix, struct string_list *args);
+void line_log_init(struct rev_info *rev, const char *prefix, struct string_list *args);
 
-extern int line_log_filter(struct rev_info *rev);
+int line_log_filter(struct rev_info *rev);
 
-extern int line_log_print(struct rev_info *rev, struct commit *commit);
+int line_log_print(struct rev_info *rev, struct commit *commit);
 
 #endif /* LINE_LOG_H */
diff --git a/lockfile.h b/lockfile.h
index 35403ccc0d..c81983a925 100644
--- a/lockfile.h
+++ b/lockfile.h
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ struct lock_file {
  * timeout_ms is -1, retry indefinitely. The flags argument and error
  * handling are described above.
  */
-extern int hold_lock_file_for_update_timeout(
+int hold_lock_file_for_update_timeout(
 		struct lock_file *lk, const char *path,
 		int flags, long timeout_ms);
 
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ static inline int is_lock_file_locked(struct lock_file *lk)
  * of `hold_lock_file_for_update()` to lock `path`. `err` should be the
  * `errno` set by the failing call.
  */
-extern void unable_to_lock_message(const char *path, int err,
+void unable_to_lock_message(const char *path, int err,
 				   struct strbuf *buf);
 
 /*
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ extern void unable_to_lock_message(const char *path, int err,
  * `errno` set by the failing
  * call.
  */
-extern NORETURN void unable_to_lock_die(const char *path, int err);
+NORETURN void unable_to_lock_die(const char *path, int err);
 
 /*
  * Associate a stdio stream with the lockfile (which must still be
@@ -234,7 +234,7 @@ static inline FILE *get_lock_file_fp(struct lock_file *lk)
  * Return the path of the file that is locked by the specified
  * lock_file object. The caller must free the memory.
  */
-extern char *get_locked_file_path(struct lock_file *lk);
+char *get_locked_file_path(struct lock_file *lk);
 
 /*
  * If the lockfile is still open, close it (and the file pointer if it
@@ -282,7 +282,7 @@ static inline int reopen_lock_file(struct lock_file *lk)
  * call `commit_lock_file()` for a `lock_file` object that is not
  * currently locked.
  */
-extern int commit_lock_file(struct lock_file *lk);
+int commit_lock_file(struct lock_file *lk);
 
 /*
  * Like `commit_lock_file()`, but rename the lockfile to the provided
diff --git a/ls-refs.h b/ls-refs.h
index b62877e8da..702d47ad70 100644
--- a/ls-refs.h
+++ b/ls-refs.h
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 struct repository;
 struct argv_array;
 struct packet_reader;
-extern int ls_refs(struct repository *r, struct argv_array *keys,
+int ls_refs(struct repository *r, struct argv_array *keys,
 		   struct packet_reader *request);
 
 #endif /* LS_REFS_H */
diff --git a/mailinfo.h b/mailinfo.h
index 6830e1e625..79b1d6774e 100644
--- a/mailinfo.h
+++ b/mailinfo.h
@@ -39,8 +39,8 @@ struct mailinfo {
 	int input_error;
 };
 
-extern void setup_mailinfo(struct mailinfo *);
-extern int mailinfo(struct mailinfo *, const char *msg, const char *patch);
-extern void clear_mailinfo(struct mailinfo *);
+void setup_mailinfo(struct mailinfo *);
+int mailinfo(struct mailinfo *, const char *msg, const char *patch);
+void clear_mailinfo(struct mailinfo *);
 
 #endif /* MAILINFO_H */
diff --git a/merge-blobs.h b/merge-blobs.h
index cc31038b80..863a7e0807 100644
--- a/merge-blobs.h
+++ b/merge-blobs.h
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 struct blob;
 struct index_state;
 
-extern void *merge_blobs(struct index_state *, const char *,
+void *merge_blobs(struct index_state *, const char *,
 			 struct blob *, struct blob *,
 			 struct blob *, unsigned long *);
 
diff --git a/object-store.h b/object-store.h
index 14fc935bd1..9700d1aca7 100644
--- a/object-store.h
+++ b/object-store.h
@@ -162,7 +162,7 @@ const char *loose_object_path(struct repository *r, struct strbuf *buf,
 void *map_loose_object(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid,
 		       unsigned long *size);
 
-extern void *read_object_file_extended(struct repository *r,
+void *read_object_file_extended(struct repository *r,
 				       const struct object_id *oid,
 				       enum object_type *type,
 				       unsigned long *size, int lookup_replace);
@@ -180,20 +180,20 @@ static inline void *repo_read_object_file(struct repository *r,
 /* Read and unpack an object file into memory, write memory to an object file */
 int oid_object_info(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *, unsigned long *);
 
-extern int hash_object_file(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
+int hash_object_file(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
 			    const char *type, struct object_id *oid);
 
-extern int write_object_file(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
+int write_object_file(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
 			     const char *type, struct object_id *oid);
 
-extern int hash_object_file_literally(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
+int hash_object_file_literally(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
 				      const char *type, struct object_id *oid,
 				      unsigned flags);
 
-extern int pretend_object_file(void *, unsigned long, enum object_type,
+int pretend_object_file(void *, unsigned long, enum object_type,
 			       struct object_id *oid);
 
-extern int force_object_loose(const struct object_id *oid, time_t mtime);
+int force_object_loose(const struct object_id *oid, time_t mtime);
 
 /*
  * Open the loose object at path, check its hash, and return the contents,
@@ -227,9 +227,9 @@ int repo_has_object_file_with_flags(struct repository *r,
  * with the specified name.  This function does not respect replace
  * references.
  */
-extern int has_loose_object_nonlocal(const struct object_id *);
+int has_loose_object_nonlocal(const struct object_id *);
 
-extern void assert_oid_type(const struct object_id *oid, enum object_type expect);
+void assert_oid_type(const struct object_id *oid, enum object_type expect);
 
 struct object_info {
 	/* Request */
diff --git a/object.h b/object.h
index 796792cb32..4526979ccf 100644
--- a/object.h
+++ b/object.h
@@ -90,19 +90,19 @@ struct object {
 	struct object_id oid;
 };
 
-extern const char *type_name(unsigned int type);
-extern int type_from_string_gently(const char *str, ssize_t, int gentle);
+const char *type_name(unsigned int type);
+int type_from_string_gently(const char *str, ssize_t, int gentle);
 #define type_from_string(str) type_from_string_gently(str, -1, 0)
 
 /*
  * Return the current number of buckets in the object hashmap.
  */
-extern unsigned int get_max_object_index(void);
+unsigned int get_max_object_index(void);
 
 /*
  * Return the object from the specified bucket in the object hashmap.
  */
-extern struct object *get_indexed_object(unsigned int);
+struct object *get_indexed_object(unsigned int);
 
 /*
  * This can be used to see if we have heard of the object before, but
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ extern struct object *get_indexed_object(unsigned int);
  */
 struct object *lookup_object(struct repository *r, const unsigned char *sha1);
 
-extern void *create_object(struct repository *r, const unsigned char *sha1, void *obj);
+void *create_object(struct repository *r, const unsigned char *sha1, void *obj);
 
 void *object_as_type(struct repository *r, struct object *obj, enum object_type type, int quiet);
 
@@ -189,6 +189,6 @@ void clear_object_flags(unsigned flags);
 /*
  * Clear the specified object flags from all in-core commit objects.
  */
-extern void clear_commit_marks_all(unsigned int flags);
+void clear_commit_marks_all(unsigned int flags);
 
 #endif /* OBJECT_H */
diff --git a/oidmap.h b/oidmap.h
index 72430b611e..91b2ed0f51 100644
--- a/oidmap.h
+++ b/oidmap.h
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ struct oidmap {
  * parameter may be used to preallocate a sufficiently large table and thus
  * prevent expensive resizing. If 0, the table is dynamically resized.
  */
-extern void oidmap_init(struct oidmap *map, size_t initial_size);
+void oidmap_init(struct oidmap *map, size_t initial_size);
 
 /*
  * Frees an oidmap structure and allocated memory.
@@ -41,12 +41,12 @@ extern void oidmap_init(struct oidmap *map, size_t initial_size);
  * If `free_entries` is true, each oidmap_entry in the map is freed as well
  * using stdlibs free().
  */
-extern void oidmap_free(struct oidmap *map, int free_entries);
+void oidmap_free(struct oidmap *map, int free_entries);
 
 /*
  * Returns the oidmap entry for the specified oid, or NULL if not found.
  */
-extern void *oidmap_get(const struct oidmap *map,
+void *oidmap_get(const struct oidmap *map,
 			const struct object_id *key);
 
 /*
@@ -57,14 +57,14 @@ extern void *oidmap_get(const struct oidmap *map,
  *
  * Returns the replaced entry, or NULL if not found (i.e. the entry was added).
  */
-extern void *oidmap_put(struct oidmap *map, void *entry);
+void *oidmap_put(struct oidmap *map, void *entry);
 
 /*
  * Removes an oidmap entry matching the specified oid.
  *
  * Returns the removed entry, or NULL if not found.
  */
-extern void *oidmap_remove(struct oidmap *map, const struct object_id *key);
+void *oidmap_remove(struct oidmap *map, const struct object_id *key);
 
 
 struct oidmap_iter {
diff --git a/pack.h b/pack.h
index da99fdd1d2..de941858c5 100644
--- a/pack.h
+++ b/pack.h
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ struct pack_idx_option {
 	uint32_t *anomaly;
 };
 
-extern void reset_pack_idx_option(struct pack_idx_option *);
+void reset_pack_idx_option(struct pack_idx_option *);
 
 /*
  * Packed object index header
@@ -79,28 +79,28 @@ struct progress;
 /* Note, the data argument could be NULL if object type is blob */
 typedef int (*verify_fn)(const struct object_id *, enum object_type, unsigned long, void*, int*);
 
-extern const char *write_idx_file(const char *index_name, struct pack_idx_entry **objects, int nr_objects, const struct pack_idx_option *, const unsigned char *sha1);
-extern int check_pack_crc(struct packed_git *p, struct pack_window **w_curs, off_t offset, off_t len, unsigned int nr);
-extern int verify_pack_index(struct packed_git *);
-extern int verify_pack(struct repository *, struct packed_git *, verify_fn fn, struct progress *, uint32_t);
-extern off_t write_pack_header(struct hashfile *f, uint32_t);
-extern void fixup_pack_header_footer(int, unsigned char *, const char *, uint32_t, unsigned char *, off_t);
-extern char *index_pack_lockfile(int fd);
+const char *write_idx_file(const char *index_name, struct pack_idx_entry **objects, int nr_objects, const struct pack_idx_option *, const unsigned char *sha1);
+int check_pack_crc(struct packed_git *p, struct pack_window **w_curs, off_t offset, off_t len, unsigned int nr);
+int verify_pack_index(struct packed_git *);
+int verify_pack(struct repository *, struct packed_git *, verify_fn fn, struct progress *, uint32_t);
+off_t write_pack_header(struct hashfile *f, uint32_t);
+void fixup_pack_header_footer(int, unsigned char *, const char *, uint32_t, unsigned char *, off_t);
+char *index_pack_lockfile(int fd);
 
 /*
  * The "hdr" output buffer should be at least this big, which will handle sizes
  * up to 2^67.
  */
 #define MAX_PACK_OBJECT_HEADER 10
-extern int encode_in_pack_object_header(unsigned char *hdr, int hdr_len,
+int encode_in_pack_object_header(unsigned char *hdr, int hdr_len,
 					enum object_type, uintmax_t);
 
 #define PH_ERROR_EOF		(-1)
 #define PH_ERROR_PACK_SIGNATURE	(-2)
 #define PH_ERROR_PROTOCOL	(-3)
-extern int read_pack_header(int fd, struct pack_header *);
+int read_pack_header(int fd, struct pack_header *);
 
-extern struct hashfile *create_tmp_packfile(char **pack_tmp_name);
-extern void finish_tmp_packfile(struct strbuf *name_buffer, const char *pack_tmp_name, struct pack_idx_entry **written_list, uint32_t nr_written, struct pack_idx_option *pack_idx_opts, unsigned char sha1[]);
+struct hashfile *create_tmp_packfile(char **pack_tmp_name);
+void finish_tmp_packfile(struct strbuf *name_buffer, const char *pack_tmp_name, struct pack_idx_entry **written_list, uint32_t nr_written, struct pack_idx_option *pack_idx_opts, unsigned char sha1[]);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/packfile.h b/packfile.h
index d70c6d9afb..4eb4d5f521 100644
--- a/packfile.h
+++ b/packfile.h
@@ -15,23 +15,23 @@ struct object_info;
  *
  * Example: odb_pack_name(out, sha1, "idx") => ".git/objects/pack/pack-1234..idx"
  */
-extern char *odb_pack_name(struct strbuf *buf, const unsigned char *sha1, const char *ext);
+char *odb_pack_name(struct strbuf *buf, const unsigned char *sha1, const char *ext);
 
 /*
  * Return the name of the (local) packfile with the specified sha1 in
  * its name.  The return value is a pointer to memory that is
  * overwritten each time this function is called.
  */
-extern char *sha1_pack_name(const unsigned char *sha1);
+char *sha1_pack_name(const unsigned char *sha1);
 
 /*
  * Return the name of the (local) pack index file with the specified
  * sha1 in its name.  The return value is a pointer to memory that is
  * overwritten each time this function is called.
  */
-extern char *sha1_pack_index_name(const unsigned char *sha1);
+char *sha1_pack_index_name(const unsigned char *sha1);
 
-extern struct packed_git *parse_pack_index(unsigned char *sha1, const char *idx_path);
+struct packed_git *parse_pack_index(unsigned char *sha1, const char *idx_path);
 
 typedef void each_file_in_pack_dir_fn(const char *full_path, size_t full_path_len,
 				      const char *file_pach, void *data);
@@ -45,8 +45,8 @@ void for_each_file_in_pack_dir(const char *objdir,
 #define PACKDIR_FILE_GARBAGE 4
 extern void (*report_garbage)(unsigned seen_bits, const char *path);
 
-extern void reprepare_packed_git(struct repository *r);
-extern void install_packed_git(struct repository *r, struct packed_git *pack);
+void reprepare_packed_git(struct repository *r);
+void install_packed_git(struct repository *r, struct packed_git *pack);
 
 struct packed_git *get_packed_git(struct repository *r);
 struct list_head *get_packed_git_mru(struct repository *r);
@@ -59,32 +59,32 @@ struct packed_git *get_all_packs(struct repository *r);
  */
 unsigned long approximate_object_count(void);
 
-extern struct packed_git *find_sha1_pack(const unsigned char *sha1,
+struct packed_git *find_sha1_pack(const unsigned char *sha1,
 					 struct packed_git *packs);
 
-extern void pack_report(void);
+void pack_report(void);
 
 /*
  * mmap the index file for the specified packfile (if it is not
  * already mmapped).  Return 0 on success.
  */
-extern int open_pack_index(struct packed_git *);
+int open_pack_index(struct packed_git *);
 
 /*
  * munmap the index file for the specified packfile (if it is
  * currently mmapped).
  */
-extern void close_pack_index(struct packed_git *);
+void close_pack_index(struct packed_git *);
 
-extern uint32_t get_pack_fanout(struct packed_git *p, uint32_t value);
+uint32_t get_pack_fanout(struct packed_git *p, uint32_t value);
 
-extern unsigned char *use_pack(struct packed_git *, struct pack_window **, off_t, unsigned long *);
-extern void close_pack_windows(struct packed_git *);
-extern void close_pack(struct packed_git *);
-extern void close_all_packs(struct raw_object_store *o);
-extern void unuse_pack(struct pack_window **);
-extern void clear_delta_base_cache(void);
-extern struct packed_git *add_packed_git(const char *path, size_t path_len, int local);
+unsigned char *use_pack(struct packed_git *, struct pack_window **, off_t, unsigned long *);
+void close_pack_windows(struct packed_git *);
+void close_pack(struct packed_git *);
+void close_all_packs(struct raw_object_store *o);
+void unuse_pack(struct pack_window **);
+void clear_delta_base_cache(void);
+struct packed_git *add_packed_git(const char *path, size_t path_len, int local);
 
 /*
  * Make sure that a pointer access into an mmap'd index file is within bounds,
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ extern struct packed_git *add_packed_git(const char *path, size_t path_len, int
  * (like the 64-bit extended offset table), as we compare the size to the
  * fixed-length parts when we open the file.
  */
-extern void check_pack_index_ptr(const struct packed_git *p, const void *ptr);
+void check_pack_index_ptr(const struct packed_git *p, const void *ptr);
 
 /*
  * Perform binary search on a pack-index for a given oid. Packfile is expected to
@@ -110,59 +110,59 @@ int bsearch_pack(const struct object_id *oid, const struct packed_git *p, uint32
  * at the SHA-1 within the mmapped index.  Return NULL if there is an
  * error.
  */
-extern const unsigned char *nth_packed_object_sha1(struct packed_git *, uint32_t n);
+const unsigned char *nth_packed_object_sha1(struct packed_git *, uint32_t n);
 /*
  * Like nth_packed_object_sha1, but write the data into the object specified by
  * the the first argument.  Returns the first argument on success, and NULL on
  * error.
  */
-extern const struct object_id *nth_packed_object_oid(struct object_id *, struct packed_git *, uint32_t n);
+const struct object_id *nth_packed_object_oid(struct object_id *, struct packed_git *, uint32_t n);
 
 /*
  * Return the offset of the nth object within the specified packfile.
  * The index must already be opened.
  */
-extern off_t nth_packed_object_offset(const struct packed_git *, uint32_t n);
+off_t nth_packed_object_offset(const struct packed_git *, uint32_t n);
 
 /*
  * If the object named sha1 is present in the specified packfile,
  * return its offset within the packfile; otherwise, return 0.
  */
-extern off_t find_pack_entry_one(const unsigned char *sha1, struct packed_git *);
+off_t find_pack_entry_one(const unsigned char *sha1, struct packed_git *);
 
-extern int is_pack_valid(struct packed_git *);
-extern void *unpack_entry(struct repository *r, struct packed_git *, off_t, enum object_type *, unsigned long *);
-extern unsigned long unpack_object_header_buffer(const unsigned char *buf, unsigned long len, enum object_type *type, unsigned long *sizep);
-extern unsigned long get_size_from_delta(struct packed_git *, struct pack_window **, off_t);
-extern int unpack_object_header(struct packed_git *, struct pack_window **, off_t *, unsigned long *);
+int is_pack_valid(struct packed_git *);
+void *unpack_entry(struct repository *r, struct packed_git *, off_t, enum object_type *, unsigned long *);
+unsigned long unpack_object_header_buffer(const unsigned char *buf, unsigned long len, enum object_type *type, unsigned long *sizep);
+unsigned long get_size_from_delta(struct packed_git *, struct pack_window **, off_t);
+int unpack_object_header(struct packed_git *, struct pack_window **, off_t *, unsigned long *);
 
-extern void release_pack_memory(size_t);
+void release_pack_memory(size_t);
 
 /* global flag to enable extra checks when accessing packed objects */
 extern int do_check_packed_object_crc;
 
-extern int packed_object_info(struct repository *r,
+int packed_object_info(struct repository *r,
 			      struct packed_git *pack,
 			      off_t offset, struct object_info *);
 
-extern void mark_bad_packed_object(struct packed_git *p, const unsigned char *sha1);
-extern const struct packed_git *has_packed_and_bad(struct repository *r, const unsigned char *sha1);
+void mark_bad_packed_object(struct packed_git *p, const unsigned char *sha1);
+const struct packed_git *has_packed_and_bad(struct repository *r, const unsigned char *sha1);
 
 /*
  * Iff a pack file in the given repository contains the object named by sha1,
  * return true and store its location to e.
  */
-extern int find_pack_entry(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid, struct pack_entry *e);
+int find_pack_entry(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid, struct pack_entry *e);
 
-extern int has_object_pack(const struct object_id *oid);
+int has_object_pack(const struct object_id *oid);
 
-extern int has_pack_index(const unsigned char *sha1);
+int has_pack_index(const unsigned char *sha1);
 
 /*
  * Return 1 if an object in a promisor packfile is or refers to the given
  * object, 0 otherwise.
  */
-extern int is_promisor_object(const struct object_id *oid);
+int is_promisor_object(const struct object_id *oid);
 
 /*
  * Expose a function for fuzz testing.
@@ -174,7 +174,7 @@ extern int is_promisor_object(const struct object_id *oid);
  * have a convenient entry-point for fuzz testing. For real uses, you should
  * probably use open_pack_index() or parse_pack_index() instead.
  */
-extern int load_idx(const char *path, const unsigned int hashsz, void *idx_map,
+int load_idx(const char *path, const unsigned int hashsz, void *idx_map,
 		    size_t idx_size, struct packed_git *p);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/path.h b/path.h
index 651e6157fc..ab9d8d86f2 100644
--- a/path.h
+++ b/path.h
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ extern int strbuf_git_path_submodule(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path,
 				     const char *fmt, ...)
 	__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)));
 
-extern void report_linked_checkout_garbage(void);
+void report_linked_checkout_garbage(void);
 
 /*
  * You can define a static memoized git path like:
diff --git a/pkt-line.h b/pkt-line.h
index c36cb788ed..1ebeaff236 100644
--- a/pkt-line.h
+++ b/pkt-line.h
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@ struct packet_reader {
  * Initialize a 'struct packet_reader' object which is an
  * abstraction around the 'packet_read_with_status()' function.
  */
-extern void packet_reader_init(struct packet_reader *reader, int fd,
+void packet_reader_init(struct packet_reader *reader, int fd,
 			       char *src_buffer, size_t src_len,
 			       int options);
 
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ extern void packet_reader_init(struct packet_reader *reader, int fd,
  *		       'line' is set to point at the read line
  * PACKET_READ_FLUSH: 'pktlen' is set to '0' and 'line' is set to NULL
  */
-extern enum packet_read_status packet_reader_read(struct packet_reader *reader);
+enum packet_read_status packet_reader_read(struct packet_reader *reader);
 
 /*
  * Peek the next packet line without consuming it and return the status.
@@ -196,7 +196,7 @@ extern enum packet_read_status packet_reader_read(struct packet_reader *reader);
  * Peeking multiple times without calling 'packet_reader_read()' will return
  * the same result.
  */
-extern enum packet_read_status packet_reader_peek(struct packet_reader *reader);
+enum packet_read_status packet_reader_peek(struct packet_reader *reader);
 
 #define DEFAULT_PACKET_MAX 1000
 #define LARGE_PACKET_MAX 65520
diff --git a/ppc/sha1.c b/ppc/sha1.c
index ec6a1926d4..b5d8af4551 100644
--- a/ppc/sha1.c
+++ b/ppc/sha1.c
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 #include <string.h>
 #include "sha1.h"
 
-extern void ppc_sha1_core(uint32_t *hash, const unsigned char *p,
+void ppc_sha1_core(uint32_t *hash, const unsigned char *p,
 			  unsigned int nblocks);
 
 int ppc_SHA1_Init(ppc_SHA_CTX *c)
diff --git a/prio-queue.h b/prio-queue.h
index 682e51867a..4f9a37e6be 100644
--- a/prio-queue.h
+++ b/prio-queue.h
@@ -37,24 +37,24 @@ struct prio_queue {
 /*
  * Add the "thing" to the queue.
  */
-extern void prio_queue_put(struct prio_queue *, void *thing);
+void prio_queue_put(struct prio_queue *, void *thing);
 
 /*
  * Extract the "thing" that compares the smallest out of the queue,
  * or NULL.  If compare function is NULL, the queue acts as a LIFO
  * stack.
  */
-extern void *prio_queue_get(struct prio_queue *);
+void *prio_queue_get(struct prio_queue *);
 
 /*
  * Gain access to the "thing" that would be returned by
  * prio_queue_get, but do not remove it from the queue.
  */
-extern void *prio_queue_peek(struct prio_queue *);
+void *prio_queue_peek(struct prio_queue *);
 
-extern void clear_prio_queue(struct prio_queue *);
+void clear_prio_queue(struct prio_queue *);
 
 /* Reverse the LIFO elements */
-extern void prio_queue_reverse(struct prio_queue *);
+void prio_queue_reverse(struct prio_queue *);
 
 #endif /* PRIO_QUEUE_H */
diff --git a/protocol.h b/protocol.h
index 2ad35e433c..cef1a4a01c 100644
--- a/protocol.h
+++ b/protocol.h
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ enum protocol_version {
  * 'protocol.version' config.  If unconfigured, a value of 'protocol_v0' is
  * returned.
  */
-extern enum protocol_version get_protocol_version_config(void);
+enum protocol_version get_protocol_version_config(void);
 
 /*
  * Used by a server to determine which protocol version should be used based on
@@ -23,12 +23,12 @@ extern enum protocol_version get_protocol_version_config(void);
  * request a particular protocol version, a default of 'protocol_v0' will be
  * used.
  */
-extern enum protocol_version determine_protocol_version_server(void);
+enum protocol_version determine_protocol_version_server(void);
 
 /*
  * Used by a client to determine which protocol version the server is speaking
  * based on the server's initial response.
  */
-extern enum protocol_version determine_protocol_version_client(const char *server_response);
+enum protocol_version determine_protocol_version_client(const char *server_response);
 
 #endif /* PROTOCOL_H */
diff --git a/quote.h b/quote.h
index ea992dcc91..89f99e98fa 100644
--- a/quote.h
+++ b/quote.h
@@ -29,8 +29,8 @@ struct strbuf;
  * sq_quotef() quotes the entire formatted string as a single result.
  */
 
-extern void sq_quote_buf(struct strbuf *, const char *src);
-extern void sq_quote_argv(struct strbuf *, const char **argv);
+void sq_quote_buf(struct strbuf *, const char *src);
+void sq_quote_argv(struct strbuf *, const char **argv);
 extern void sq_quotef(struct strbuf *, const char *fmt, ...);
 
 /*
@@ -45,14 +45,14 @@ void sq_quote_argv_pretty(struct strbuf *, const char **argv);
  * NULL if the input does not look like what sq_quote would have
  * produced.
  */
-extern char *sq_dequote(char *);
+char *sq_dequote(char *);
 
 /*
  * Same as the above, but can be used to unwrap many arguments in the
  * same string separated by space. Like sq_quote, it works in place,
  * modifying arg and appending pointers into it to argv.
  */
-extern int sq_dequote_to_argv(char *arg, const char ***argv, int *nr, int *alloc);
+int sq_dequote_to_argv(char *arg, const char ***argv, int *nr, int *alloc);
 
 /*
  * Same as above, but store the unquoted strings in an argv_array. We will
@@ -60,24 +60,24 @@ extern int sq_dequote_to_argv(char *arg, const char ***argv, int *nr, int *alloc
  * will duplicate and take ownership of the strings.
  */
 struct argv_array;
-extern int sq_dequote_to_argv_array(char *arg, struct argv_array *);
+int sq_dequote_to_argv_array(char *arg, struct argv_array *);
 
-extern int unquote_c_style(struct strbuf *, const char *quoted, const char **endp);
-extern size_t quote_c_style(const char *name, struct strbuf *, FILE *, int no_dq);
-extern void quote_two_c_style(struct strbuf *, const char *, const char *, int);
+int unquote_c_style(struct strbuf *, const char *quoted, const char **endp);
+size_t quote_c_style(const char *name, struct strbuf *, FILE *, int no_dq);
+void quote_two_c_style(struct strbuf *, const char *, const char *, int);
 
-extern void write_name_quoted(const char *name, FILE *, int terminator);
-extern void write_name_quoted_relative(const char *name, const char *prefix,
+void write_name_quoted(const char *name, FILE *, int terminator);
+void write_name_quoted_relative(const char *name, const char *prefix,
 		FILE *fp, int terminator);
 
 /* quote path as relative to the given prefix */
-extern char *quote_path_relative(const char *in, const char *prefix,
+char *quote_path_relative(const char *in, const char *prefix,
 			  struct strbuf *out);
 
 /* quoting as a string literal for other languages */
-extern void perl_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
-extern void python_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
-extern void tcl_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
-extern void basic_regex_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
+void perl_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
+void python_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
+void tcl_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
+void basic_regex_quote_buf(struct strbuf *sb, const char *src);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/reachable.h b/reachable.h
index 18b0f9f2f0..aef2b877a5 100644
--- a/reachable.h
+++ b/reachable.h
@@ -4,9 +4,9 @@
 struct progress;
 struct rev_info;
 
-extern int add_unseen_recent_objects_to_traversal(struct rev_info *revs,
+int add_unseen_recent_objects_to_traversal(struct rev_info *revs,
 						  timestamp_t timestamp);
-extern void mark_reachable_objects(struct rev_info *revs, int mark_reflog,
+void mark_reachable_objects(struct rev_info *revs, int mark_reflog,
 				   timestamp_t mark_recent, struct progress *);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/reflog-walk.h b/reflog-walk.h
index cb3e73755d..c83597d1db 100644
--- a/reflog-walk.h
+++ b/reflog-walk.h
@@ -6,21 +6,21 @@
 struct commit;
 struct reflog_walk_info;
 
-extern void init_reflog_walk(struct reflog_walk_info **info);
-extern int add_reflog_for_walk(struct reflog_walk_info *info,
+void init_reflog_walk(struct reflog_walk_info **info);
+int add_reflog_for_walk(struct reflog_walk_info *info,
 		struct commit *commit, const char *name);
-extern void show_reflog_message(struct reflog_walk_info *info, int,
+void show_reflog_message(struct reflog_walk_info *info, int,
 				const struct date_mode *, int force_date);
-extern void get_reflog_message(struct strbuf *sb,
+void get_reflog_message(struct strbuf *sb,
 		struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info);
-extern const char *get_reflog_ident(struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info);
-extern timestamp_t get_reflog_timestamp(struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info);
-extern void get_reflog_selector(struct strbuf *sb,
+const char *get_reflog_ident(struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info);
+timestamp_t get_reflog_timestamp(struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info);
+void get_reflog_selector(struct strbuf *sb,
 		struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info,
 		const struct date_mode *dmode, int force_date,
 		int shorten);
 
-extern int reflog_walk_empty(struct reflog_walk_info *walk);
+int reflog_walk_empty(struct reflog_walk_info *walk);
 
 struct commit *next_reflog_entry(struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info);
 
diff --git a/refs.h b/refs.h
index 308fa1f03b..21ca50d210 100644
--- a/refs.h
+++ b/refs.h
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ int should_autocreate_reflog(const char *refname);
 
 int is_branch(const char *refname);
 
-extern int refs_init_db(struct strbuf *err);
+int refs_init_db(struct strbuf *err);
 
 /*
  * If refname is a non-symbolic reference that refers to a tag object,
diff --git a/remote.h b/remote.h
index da53ad570b..7b1eed6008 100644
--- a/remote.h
+++ b/remote.h
@@ -119,13 +119,13 @@ struct ref {
 #define REF_HEADS	(1u << 1)
 #define REF_TAGS	(1u << 2)
 
-extern struct ref *find_ref_by_name(const struct ref *list, const char *name);
+struct ref *find_ref_by_name(const struct ref *list, const char *name);
 
 struct ref *alloc_ref(const char *name);
 struct ref *copy_ref(const struct ref *ref);
 struct ref *copy_ref_list(const struct ref *ref);
 void sort_ref_list(struct ref **, int (*cmp)(const void *, const void *));
-extern int count_refspec_match(const char *, struct ref *refs, struct ref **matched_ref);
+int count_refspec_match(const char *, struct ref *refs, struct ref **matched_ref);
 int ref_compare_name(const void *, const void *);
 
 int check_ref_type(const struct ref *ref, int flags);
@@ -139,13 +139,13 @@ struct oid_array;
 struct packet_reader;
 struct argv_array;
 struct string_list;
-extern struct ref **get_remote_heads(struct packet_reader *reader,
+struct ref **get_remote_heads(struct packet_reader *reader,
 				     struct ref **list, unsigned int flags,
 				     struct oid_array *extra_have,
 				     struct oid_array *shallow_points);
 
 /* Used for protocol v2 in order to retrieve refs from a remote */
-extern struct ref **get_remote_refs(int fd_out, struct packet_reader *reader,
+struct ref **get_remote_refs(int fd_out, struct packet_reader *reader,
 				    struct ref **list, int for_push,
 				    const struct argv_array *ref_prefixes,
 				    const struct string_list *server_options);
@@ -287,9 +287,9 @@ struct push_cas_option {
 	int alloc;
 };
 
-extern int parseopt_push_cas_option(const struct option *, const char *arg, int unset);
+int parseopt_push_cas_option(const struct option *, const char *arg, int unset);
 
-extern int is_empty_cas(const struct push_cas_option *);
+int is_empty_cas(const struct push_cas_option *);
 void apply_push_cas(struct push_cas_option *, struct remote *, struct ref *);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/replace-object.h b/replace-object.h
index 16528df942..f438421e36 100644
--- a/replace-object.h
+++ b/replace-object.h
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ void prepare_replace_object(struct repository *r);
  * This internal function is only declared here for the benefit of
  * lookup_replace_object().  Please do not call it directly.
  */
-extern const struct object_id *do_lookup_replace_object(struct repository *r,
+const struct object_id *do_lookup_replace_object(struct repository *r,
 							const struct object_id *oid);
 
 /*
diff --git a/resolve-undo.h b/resolve-undo.h
index fbe348efac..2b3f0f901e 100644
--- a/resolve-undo.h
+++ b/resolve-undo.h
@@ -8,12 +8,12 @@ struct resolve_undo_info {
 	struct object_id oid[3];
 };
 
-extern void record_resolve_undo(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *);
-extern void resolve_undo_write(struct strbuf *, struct string_list *);
-extern struct string_list *resolve_undo_read(const char *, unsigned long);
-extern void resolve_undo_clear_index(struct index_state *);
-extern int unmerge_index_entry_at(struct index_state *, int);
-extern void unmerge_index(struct index_state *, const struct pathspec *);
-extern void unmerge_marked_index(struct index_state *);
+void record_resolve_undo(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *);
+void resolve_undo_write(struct strbuf *, struct string_list *);
+struct string_list *resolve_undo_read(const char *, unsigned long);
+void resolve_undo_clear_index(struct index_state *);
+int unmerge_index_entry_at(struct index_state *, int);
+void unmerge_index(struct index_state *, const struct pathspec *);
+void unmerge_marked_index(struct index_state *);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/run-command.h b/run-command.h
index a6950691c0..31f6f2e57f 100644
--- a/run-command.h
+++ b/run-command.h
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ struct child_process {
 #define CHILD_PROCESS_INIT { NULL, ARGV_ARRAY_INIT, ARGV_ARRAY_INIT }
 void child_process_init(struct child_process *);
 void child_process_clear(struct child_process *);
-extern int is_executable(const char *name);
+int is_executable(const char *name);
 
 int start_command(struct child_process *);
 int finish_command(struct child_process *);
@@ -67,10 +67,10 @@ int run_command(struct child_process *);
  * or disabled. Note that this points to static storage that will be
  * overwritten by further calls to find_hook and run_hook_*.
  */
-extern const char *find_hook(const char *name);
+const char *find_hook(const char *name);
 LAST_ARG_MUST_BE_NULL
 extern int run_hook_le(const char *const *env, const char *name, ...);
-extern int run_hook_ve(const char *const *env, const char *name, va_list args);
+int run_hook_ve(const char *const *env, const char *name, va_list args);
 
 #define RUN_COMMAND_NO_STDIN 1
 #define RUN_GIT_CMD	     2	/*If this is to be git sub-command */
diff --git a/serve.h b/serve.h
index fe65ba9f46..48b6f5e479 100644
--- a/serve.h
+++ b/serve.h
@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
 #define SERVE_H
 
 struct argv_array;
-extern int has_capability(const struct argv_array *keys, const char *capability,
+int has_capability(const struct argv_array *keys, const char *capability,
 			  const char **value);
 
 struct serve_options {
@@ -10,6 +10,6 @@ struct serve_options {
 	unsigned stateless_rpc;
 };
 #define SERVE_OPTIONS_INIT { 0 }
-extern void serve(struct serve_options *options);
+void serve(struct serve_options *options);
 
 #endif /* SERVE_H */
diff --git a/sha1-lookup.h b/sha1-lookup.h
index 7678b23b36..457c9b4964 100644
--- a/sha1-lookup.h
+++ b/sha1-lookup.h
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 typedef const unsigned char *sha1_access_fn(size_t index, void *table);
 
-extern int sha1_pos(const unsigned char *sha1,
+int sha1_pos(const unsigned char *sha1,
 		    void *table,
 		    size_t nr,
 		    sha1_access_fn fn);
diff --git a/streaming.h b/streaming.h
index 32f4626771..f465a3cd31 100644
--- a/streaming.h
+++ b/streaming.h
@@ -8,10 +8,10 @@
 /* opaque */
 struct git_istream;
 
-extern struct git_istream *open_istream(const struct object_id *, enum object_type *, unsigned long *, struct stream_filter *);
-extern int close_istream(struct git_istream *);
-extern ssize_t read_istream(struct git_istream *, void *, size_t);
+struct git_istream *open_istream(const struct object_id *, enum object_type *, unsigned long *, struct stream_filter *);
+int close_istream(struct git_istream *);
+ssize_t read_istream(struct git_istream *, void *, size_t);
 
-extern int stream_blob_to_fd(int fd, const struct object_id *, struct stream_filter *, int can_seek);
+int stream_blob_to_fd(int fd, const struct object_id *, struct stream_filter *, int can_seek);
 
 #endif /* STREAMING_H */
diff --git a/string-list.h b/string-list.h
index 18c718c12c..7d9df61ac3 100644
--- a/string-list.h
+++ b/string-list.h
@@ -174,7 +174,7 @@ struct string_list_item *string_list_insert(struct string_list *list, const char
  * Remove the given string from the sorted list.  If the string
  * doesn't exist, the list is not altered.
  */
-extern void string_list_remove(struct string_list *list, const char *string,
+void string_list_remove(struct string_list *list, const char *string,
 			       int free_util);
 
 /**
diff --git a/sub-process.h b/sub-process.h
index 71b18ad5af..1653ae8afe 100644
--- a/sub-process.h
+++ b/sub-process.h
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ struct subprocess_capability {
 /* subprocess functions */
 
 /* Function to test two subprocess hashmap entries for equality. */
-extern int cmd2process_cmp(const void *unused_cmp_data,
+int cmd2process_cmp(const void *unused_cmp_data,
 			   const void *e1,
 			   const void *e2,
 			   const void *unused_keydata);
diff --git a/submodule-config.h b/submodule-config.h
index 4dc9b0771c..a88ae7107f 100644
--- a/submodule-config.h
+++ b/submodule-config.h
@@ -30,17 +30,17 @@ struct submodule {
 struct submodule_cache;
 struct repository;
 
-extern void submodule_cache_free(struct submodule_cache *cache);
+void submodule_cache_free(struct submodule_cache *cache);
 
-extern int parse_submodule_fetchjobs(const char *var, const char *value);
-extern int parse_fetch_recurse_submodules_arg(const char *opt, const char *arg);
+int parse_submodule_fetchjobs(const char *var, const char *value);
+int parse_fetch_recurse_submodules_arg(const char *opt, const char *arg);
 struct option;
-extern int option_fetch_parse_recurse_submodules(const struct option *opt,
+int option_fetch_parse_recurse_submodules(const struct option *opt,
 						 const char *arg, int unset);
-extern int parse_update_recurse_submodules_arg(const char *opt, const char *arg);
-extern int parse_push_recurse_submodules_arg(const char *opt, const char *arg);
-extern void repo_read_gitmodules(struct repository *repo);
-extern void gitmodules_config_oid(const struct object_id *commit_oid);
+int parse_update_recurse_submodules_arg(const char *opt, const char *arg);
+int parse_push_recurse_submodules_arg(const char *opt, const char *arg);
+void repo_read_gitmodules(struct repository *repo);
+void gitmodules_config_oid(const struct object_id *commit_oid);
 const struct submodule *submodule_from_name(struct repository *r,
 					    const struct object_id *commit_or_tree,
 					    const char *name);
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ int check_submodule_name(const char *name);
  * New helpers to retrieve arbitrary configuration from the '.gitmodules' file
  * should NOT be added.
  */
-extern void fetch_config_from_gitmodules(int *max_children, int *recurse_submodules);
-extern void update_clone_config_from_gitmodules(int *max_jobs);
+void fetch_config_from_gitmodules(int *max_children, int *recurse_submodules);
+void update_clone_config_from_gitmodules(int *max_jobs);
 
 #endif /* SUBMODULE_CONFIG_H */
diff --git a/tag.h b/tag.h
index e669c3e497..e57490485e 100644
--- a/tag.h
+++ b/tag.h
@@ -11,13 +11,13 @@ struct tag {
 	char *tag;
 	timestamp_t date;
 };
-extern struct tag *lookup_tag(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid);
-extern int parse_tag_buffer(struct repository *r, struct tag *item, const void *data, unsigned long size);
-extern int parse_tag(struct tag *item);
-extern void release_tag_memory(struct tag *t);
-extern struct object *deref_tag(struct repository *r, struct object *, const char *, int);
-extern struct object *deref_tag_noverify(struct object *);
-extern int gpg_verify_tag(const struct object_id *oid,
+struct tag *lookup_tag(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid);
+int parse_tag_buffer(struct repository *r, struct tag *item, const void *data, unsigned long size);
+int parse_tag(struct tag *item);
+void release_tag_memory(struct tag *t);
+struct object *deref_tag(struct repository *r, struct object *, const char *, int);
+struct object *deref_tag_noverify(struct object *);
+int gpg_verify_tag(const struct object_id *oid,
 		const char *name_to_report, unsigned flags);
 
 #endif /* TAG_H */
diff --git a/tempfile.h b/tempfile.h
index 61d8dc4d1b..7b05d5765e 100644
--- a/tempfile.h
+++ b/tempfile.h
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ struct tempfile {
  * a tempfile (whose "fd" member can be used for writing to it), or
  * NULL on error. It is an error if a file already exists at that path.
  */
-extern struct tempfile *create_tempfile(const char *path);
+struct tempfile *create_tempfile(const char *path);
 
 /*
  * Register an existing file as a tempfile, meaning that it will be
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ extern struct tempfile *create_tempfile(const char *path);
  * but it can be worked with like any other closed tempfile (for
  * example, it can be opened using reopen_tempfile()).
  */
-extern struct tempfile *register_tempfile(const char *path);
+struct tempfile *register_tempfile(const char *path);
 
 
 /*
@@ -136,7 +136,7 @@ extern struct tempfile *register_tempfile(const char *path);
  */
 
 /* See "mks_tempfile functions" above. */
-extern struct tempfile *mks_tempfile_sm(const char *filename_template,
+struct tempfile *mks_tempfile_sm(const char *filename_template,
 					int suffixlen, int mode);
 
 /* See "mks_tempfile functions" above. */
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ static inline struct tempfile *mks_tempfile(const char *filename_template)
 }
 
 /* See "mks_tempfile functions" above. */
-extern struct tempfile *mks_tempfile_tsm(const char *filename_template,
+struct tempfile *mks_tempfile_tsm(const char *filename_template,
 					 int suffixlen, int mode);
 
 /* See "mks_tempfile functions" above. */
@@ -182,7 +182,7 @@ static inline struct tempfile *mks_tempfile_t(const char *filename_template)
 }
 
 /* See "mks_tempfile functions" above. */
-extern struct tempfile *xmks_tempfile_m(const char *filename_template, int mode);
+struct tempfile *xmks_tempfile_m(const char *filename_template, int mode);
 
 /* See "mks_tempfile functions" above. */
 static inline struct tempfile *xmks_tempfile(const char *filename_template)
@@ -196,7 +196,7 @@ static inline struct tempfile *xmks_tempfile(const char *filename_template)
  * stream is closed automatically when `close_tempfile_gently()` is called or
  * when the file is deleted or renamed.
  */
-extern FILE *fdopen_tempfile(struct tempfile *tempfile, const char *mode);
+FILE *fdopen_tempfile(struct tempfile *tempfile, const char *mode);
 
 static inline int is_tempfile_active(struct tempfile *tempfile)
 {
@@ -207,10 +207,10 @@ static inline int is_tempfile_active(struct tempfile *tempfile)
  * Return the path of the lockfile. The return value is a pointer to a
  * field within the lock_file object and should not be freed.
  */
-extern const char *get_tempfile_path(struct tempfile *tempfile);
+const char *get_tempfile_path(struct tempfile *tempfile);
 
-extern int get_tempfile_fd(struct tempfile *tempfile);
-extern FILE *get_tempfile_fp(struct tempfile *tempfile);
+int get_tempfile_fd(struct tempfile *tempfile);
+FILE *get_tempfile_fp(struct tempfile *tempfile);
 
 /*
  * If the temporary file is still open, close it (and the file pointer
@@ -220,7 +220,7 @@ extern FILE *get_tempfile_fp(struct tempfile *tempfile);
  * should eventually be called regardless of whether `close_tempfile_gently()`
  * succeeds.
  */
-extern int close_tempfile_gently(struct tempfile *tempfile);
+int close_tempfile_gently(struct tempfile *tempfile);
 
 /*
  * Re-open a temporary file that has been closed using
@@ -241,7 +241,7 @@ extern int close_tempfile_gently(struct tempfile *tempfile);
  *
  * * `rename_tempfile()` to move the file to its permanent location.
  */
-extern int reopen_tempfile(struct tempfile *tempfile);
+int reopen_tempfile(struct tempfile *tempfile);
 
 /*
  * Close the file descriptor and/or file pointer and remove the
@@ -249,7 +249,7 @@ extern int reopen_tempfile(struct tempfile *tempfile);
  * `delete_tempfile()` for a `tempfile` object that has already been
  * deleted or renamed.
  */
-extern void delete_tempfile(struct tempfile **tempfile_p);
+void delete_tempfile(struct tempfile **tempfile_p);
 
 /*
  * Close the file descriptor and/or file pointer if they are still
@@ -260,6 +260,6 @@ extern void delete_tempfile(struct tempfile **tempfile_p);
  * `rename(2)`. It is a bug to call `rename_tempfile()` for a
  * `tempfile` object that is not currently active.
  */
-extern int rename_tempfile(struct tempfile **tempfile_p, const char *path);
+int rename_tempfile(struct tempfile **tempfile_p, const char *path);
 
 #endif /* TEMPFILE_H */
diff --git a/trace.h b/trace.h
index 171b256d26..57faf3530a 100644
--- a/trace.h
+++ b/trace.h
@@ -17,12 +17,12 @@ extern struct trace_key trace_default_key;
 extern struct trace_key trace_perf_key;
 extern struct trace_key trace_setup_key;
 
-extern void trace_repo_setup(const char *prefix);
-extern int trace_want(struct trace_key *key);
-extern void trace_disable(struct trace_key *key);
-extern uint64_t getnanotime(void);
-extern void trace_command_performance(const char **argv);
-extern void trace_verbatim(struct trace_key *key, const void *buf, unsigned len);
+void trace_repo_setup(const char *prefix);
+int trace_want(struct trace_key *key);
+void trace_disable(struct trace_key *key);
+uint64_t getnanotime(void);
+void trace_command_performance(const char **argv);
+void trace_verbatim(struct trace_key *key, const void *buf, unsigned len);
 uint64_t trace_performance_enter(void);
 
 #ifndef HAVE_VARIADIC_MACROS
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ extern void trace_printf_key(struct trace_key *key, const char *format, ...);
 __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
 extern void trace_argv_printf(const char **argv, const char *format, ...);
 
-extern void trace_strbuf(struct trace_key *key, const struct strbuf *data);
+void trace_strbuf(struct trace_key *key, const struct strbuf *data);
 
 /* Prints elapsed time (in nanoseconds) if GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE is enabled. */
 __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@ extern void trace_printf_key_fl(const char *file, int line, struct trace_key *ke
 __attribute__((format (printf, 4, 5)))
 extern void trace_argv_printf_fl(const char *file, int line, const char **argv,
 				 const char *format, ...);
-extern void trace_strbuf_fl(const char *file, int line, struct trace_key *key,
+void trace_strbuf_fl(const char *file, int line, struct trace_key *key,
 			    const struct strbuf *data);
 __attribute__((format (printf, 4, 5)))
 extern void trace_performance_fl(const char *file, int line,
diff --git a/transport.h b/transport.h
index f2ee7c4f49..06e06d3d89 100644
--- a/transport.h
+++ b/transport.h
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@ struct transport {
 #define TRANSPORT_PUSH_OPTIONS			(1<<14)
 #define TRANSPORT_RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ONLY	(1<<15)
 
-extern int transport_summary_width(const struct ref *refs);
+int transport_summary_width(const struct ref *refs);
 
 /* Returns a transport suitable for the url */
 struct transport *transport_get(struct remote *, const char *);
@@ -263,5 +263,5 @@ void transport_print_push_status(const char *dest, struct ref *refs,
 		  int verbose, int porcelain, unsigned int *reject_reasons);
 
 typedef void alternate_ref_fn(const struct object_id *oid, void *);
-extern void for_each_alternate_ref(alternate_ref_fn, void *);
+void for_each_alternate_ref(alternate_ref_fn, void *);
 #endif
diff --git a/tree-walk.h b/tree-walk.h
index 8225171866..550b8dd9a4 100644
--- a/tree-walk.h
+++ b/tree-walk.h
@@ -67,8 +67,8 @@ struct traverse_info {
 };
 
 int get_tree_entry(const struct object_id *, const char *, struct object_id *, unsigned *);
-extern char *make_traverse_path(char *path, const struct traverse_info *info, const struct name_entry *n);
-extern void setup_traverse_info(struct traverse_info *info, const char *base);
+char *make_traverse_path(char *path, const struct traverse_info *info, const struct name_entry *n);
+void setup_traverse_info(struct traverse_info *info, const char *base);
 
 static inline int traverse_path_len(const struct traverse_info *info, const struct name_entry *n)
 {
diff --git a/upload-pack.h b/upload-pack.h
index cab2178796..bc2ceb211c 100644
--- a/upload-pack.h
+++ b/upload-pack.h
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ void upload_pack(struct upload_pack_options *options);
 struct repository;
 struct argv_array;
 struct packet_reader;
-extern int upload_pack_v2(struct repository *r, struct argv_array *keys,
+int upload_pack_v2(struct repository *r, struct argv_array *keys,
 			  struct packet_reader *request);
 
 struct strbuf;
-extern int upload_pack_advertise(struct repository *r,
+int upload_pack_advertise(struct repository *r,
 				 struct strbuf *value);
 
 #endif /* UPLOAD_PACK_H */
diff --git a/url.h b/url.h
index f311c40a46..00b7d58c33 100644
--- a/url.h
+++ b/url.h
@@ -3,14 +3,14 @@
 
 struct strbuf;
 
-extern int is_url(const char *url);
-extern int is_urlschemechar(int first_flag, int ch);
-extern char *url_decode(const char *url);
-extern char *url_decode_mem(const char *url, int len);
-extern char *url_decode_parameter_name(const char **query);
-extern char *url_decode_parameter_value(const char **query);
+int is_url(const char *url);
+int is_urlschemechar(int first_flag, int ch);
+char *url_decode(const char *url);
+char *url_decode_mem(const char *url, int len);
+char *url_decode_parameter_name(const char **query);
+char *url_decode_parameter_value(const char **query);
 
-extern void end_url_with_slash(struct strbuf *buf, const char *url);
-extern void str_end_url_with_slash(const char *url, char **dest);
+void end_url_with_slash(struct strbuf *buf, const char *url);
+void str_end_url_with_slash(const char *url, char **dest);
 
 #endif /* URL_H */
diff --git a/urlmatch.h b/urlmatch.h
index e482148248..eed5f29235 100644
--- a/urlmatch.h
+++ b/urlmatch.h
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ struct url_info {
 				 * '?...' and '#...' portion; will always be >= 1 */
 };
 
-extern char *url_normalize(const char *, struct url_info *);
+char *url_normalize(const char *, struct url_info *);
 
 struct urlmatch_item {
 	size_t hostmatch_len;
@@ -52,6 +52,6 @@ struct urlmatch_config {
 	int (*cascade_fn)(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
 };
 
-extern int urlmatch_config_entry(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
+int urlmatch_config_entry(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
 
 #endif /* URL_MATCH_H */
diff --git a/utf8.h b/utf8.h
index 84efbfcb1f..fcd5167baf 100644
--- a/utf8.h
+++ b/utf8.h
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ __attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
 int utf8_fprintf(FILE *, const char *, ...);
 
 extern const char utf8_bom[];
-extern int skip_utf8_bom(char **, size_t);
+int skip_utf8_bom(char **, size_t);
 
 void strbuf_add_wrapped_text(struct strbuf *buf,
 		const char *text, int indent, int indent2, int width);
diff --git a/varint.h b/varint.h
index c1c44d9a6b..f78bb0ca52 100644
--- a/varint.h
+++ b/varint.h
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #ifndef VARINT_H
 #define VARINT_H
 
-extern int encode_varint(uintmax_t, unsigned char *);
-extern uintmax_t decode_varint(const unsigned char **);
+int encode_varint(uintmax_t, unsigned char *);
+uintmax_t decode_varint(const unsigned char **);
 
 #endif /* VARINT_H */
diff --git a/vcs-svn/sliding_window.h b/vcs-svn/sliding_window.h
index 189c32d84c..a7fc0999cb 100644
--- a/vcs-svn/sliding_window.h
+++ b/vcs-svn/sliding_window.h
@@ -13,6 +13,6 @@ struct sliding_view {
 
 #define SLIDING_VIEW_INIT(input, len)	{ (input), 0, 0, (len), STRBUF_INIT }
 
-extern int move_window(struct sliding_view *view, off_t off, size_t width);
+int move_window(struct sliding_view *view, off_t off, size_t width);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/vcs-svn/svndiff.h b/vcs-svn/svndiff.h
index 10a2cbc40e..023799a05c 100644
--- a/vcs-svn/svndiff.h
+++ b/vcs-svn/svndiff.h
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 struct line_buffer;
 struct sliding_view;
 
-extern int svndiff0_apply(struct line_buffer *delta, off_t delta_len,
+int svndiff0_apply(struct line_buffer *delta, off_t delta_len,
 		struct sliding_view *preimage, FILE *postimage);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/worktree.h b/worktree.h
index 9e3b0b7b6f..ead36d6f54 100644
--- a/worktree.h
+++ b/worktree.h
@@ -30,37 +30,37 @@ struct worktree {
  * The caller is responsible for freeing the memory from the returned
  * worktree(s).
  */
-extern struct worktree **get_worktrees(unsigned flags);
+struct worktree **get_worktrees(unsigned flags);
 
 /*
  * Returns 1 if linked worktrees exist, 0 otherwise.
  */
-extern int submodule_uses_worktrees(const char *path);
+int submodule_uses_worktrees(const char *path);
 
 /*
  * Return git dir of the worktree. Note that the path may be relative.
  * If wt is NULL, git dir of current worktree is returned.
  */
-extern const char *get_worktree_git_dir(const struct worktree *wt);
+const char *get_worktree_git_dir(const struct worktree *wt);
 
 /*
  * Search a worktree that can be unambiguously identified by
  * "arg". "prefix" must not be NULL.
  */
-extern struct worktree *find_worktree(struct worktree **list,
+struct worktree *find_worktree(struct worktree **list,
 				      const char *prefix,
 				      const char *arg);
 
 /*
  * Return true if the given worktree is the main one.
  */
-extern int is_main_worktree(const struct worktree *wt);
+int is_main_worktree(const struct worktree *wt);
 
 /*
  * Return the reason string if the given worktree is locked or NULL
  * otherwise.
  */
-extern const char *worktree_lock_reason(struct worktree *wt);
+const char *worktree_lock_reason(struct worktree *wt);
 
 #define WT_VALIDATE_WORKTREE_MISSING_OK (1 << 0)
 
@@ -68,27 +68,27 @@ extern const char *worktree_lock_reason(struct worktree *wt);
  * Return zero if the worktree is in good condition. Error message is
  * returned if "errmsg" is not NULL.
  */
-extern int validate_worktree(const struct worktree *wt,
+int validate_worktree(const struct worktree *wt,
 			     struct strbuf *errmsg,
 			     unsigned flags);
 
 /*
  * Update worktrees/xxx/gitdir with the new path.
  */
-extern void update_worktree_location(struct worktree *wt,
+void update_worktree_location(struct worktree *wt,
 				     const char *path_);
 
 /*
  * Free up the memory for worktree(s)
  */
-extern void free_worktrees(struct worktree **);
+void free_worktrees(struct worktree **);
 
 /*
  * Check if a per-worktree symref points to a ref in the main worktree
  * or any linked worktree, and return the worktree that holds the ref,
  * or NULL otherwise. The result may be destroyed by the next call.
  */
-extern const struct worktree *find_shared_symref(const char *symref,
+const struct worktree *find_shared_symref(const char *symref,
 						 const char *target);
 
 /*
diff --git a/xdiff-interface.h b/xdiff-interface.h
index 2d41fffd4c..a71950a10b 100644
--- a/xdiff-interface.h
+++ b/xdiff-interface.h
@@ -27,9 +27,9 @@ int read_mmfile(mmfile_t *ptr, const char *filename);
 void read_mmblob(mmfile_t *ptr, const struct object_id *oid);
 int buffer_is_binary(const char *ptr, unsigned long size);
 
-extern void xdiff_set_find_func(xdemitconf_t *xecfg, const char *line, int cflags);
-extern void xdiff_clear_find_func(xdemitconf_t *xecfg);
-extern int git_xmerge_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
+void xdiff_set_find_func(xdemitconf_t *xecfg, const char *line, int cflags);
+void xdiff_clear_find_func(xdemitconf_t *xecfg);
+int git_xmerge_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
 extern int git_xmerge_style;
 
 /*
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ void discard_hunk_line(void *priv,
  * The `flags` given as XDF_WHITESPACE_FLAGS determine how white spaces
  * are treated for the comparision.
  */
-extern int xdiff_compare_lines(const char *l1, long s1,
+int xdiff_compare_lines(const char *l1, long s1,
 			       const char *l2, long s2, long flags);
 
 /*
@@ -54,6 +54,6 @@ extern int xdiff_compare_lines(const char *l1, long s1,
  * The `flags` given as XDF_WHITESPACE_FLAGS determine how white spaces
  * are treated for the hash.
  */
-extern unsigned long xdiff_hash_string(const char *s, size_t len, long flags);
+unsigned long xdiff_hash_string(const char *s, size_t len, long flags);
 
 #endif
-- 
2.21.0.921.gb27c68c4e9