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Bug in pathspec handling (in conjunction with submodules)

Hi Duy & Brandon,

in 74ed43711fd (grep: enable recurse-submodules to work on <tree> objects,
2016-12-16), the do_match() function in tree-walk.c was changed so that it
can recurse across submodule boundaries.

However, there is a bug, and I *think* there may be two bugs actually. Or
even three.

First of all, here is an MCVE that I distilled from

	git init repo
	cd repo

	git init submodule
	git -C submodule commit -m initial --allow-empty

	touch "[bracket]"
	git add "[bracket]"
	git commit -m bracket
	git add submodule
	git commit -m submodule

	git rev-list HEAD -- "[bracket]"

Nothing fancy, just adding a file with brackets in the name, then a
submodule, then showing the commit history filtered by the funny file

However, the log prints *both* commits. Clearly the submodule commit
should *not* be shown.

Now, how does this all happen?

Since the pathspec contains brackets, parse_pathspec() marks it as
containing wildcards and sets nowildcard_len to 0.

Now, note that [bracket] *is* a wildcard expression: it should only match
a single character that is one of  a, b, c, e, k, r or t.

I think this is the first bug: `git rev-list` should not even match the
commit that adds the file [bracket] because its file name does not match
that expression. From where I sit, it would appear that f1a2ddbbc2d
(tree_entry_interesting(): optimize wildcard matching when base is
matched, 2010-12-15) simply added the fnmatch() code without disabling the
literal match_entry() code when the pathspec contains a pattern.

But it does not stop there: there is *another* bug which causes the
pattern to somehow match the submodule. I *guess* the idea of
was to allow a pattern like *.c to match files in a submodule, but the
pattern [bracket] should not match any file in submodule/. I think that
that code needs to be a little bit more careful to try to match the
submodule's name against the pattern (it seems to interpret nowildcard_len
== 0 to mean that the wildcard is `*`).

However, the commit introducing that code wanted to teach *grep* (not
*rev-list*) a new trick, and it relies on the `recursive` flag of the
pathspec to be set.

And now it gets really interesting. Or confusing, depending on your mental
condition. This recursive flag of the pathspec is set in
ll_diff_tree_paths() (yep, changing the flag in the passed-in opt
structure... which I found a bit... unexpected, given the function name, I
would have been less surprised if that function only diff'ed the trees and
used the options without changing the options). That flag-change was
introduced in
which is another patch that changed the tree diff machinery to accommodate
`git grep` (but maybe not really paying a lot of attention to the fact
that the same machinery is called repeatedly by the revision machinery,

I am really confused by this code mainly due to the fact that the term
"recursive" is pretty ambiguous in that context: does it refer to
directories/tree objects, or to submodules? I guess it is used for both
when there should be two flags so that rev-list can recurse over tree
objects but not submodules (unless told to do so).

The problem, of course, is that `git rev-list HEAD -- '[bracket]'` never
recurses into the submodule. And therefore, the promised "more accurate
matching [...] in the submodule" is never performed. And the commit adding
the submodule is never pruned.

Since I am not really familiar with all that tree diff code (and as a
general rule to protect my mental health, I try my best to stay away from
submodules, too), but you two are, may I ask you gentle people to have a
closer look to fix those bugs?