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[PATCH] push: document & test --force-with-lease with multiple remotes

Document & test for cases where there are two remotes pointing to the
same URL, and a background fetch & subsequent `git push
--force-with-lease` shouldn't clobber un-updated references we haven't

Some editors like Microsoft's VSC have a feature to auto-fetch in the
background, this bypasses the protections offered by
--force-with-lease as noted in the documentation being added here.

See the 'Tools that do an automatic fetch defeat "git push
--force-with-lease"' (<1491617750.2149.10.camel@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>)
git mailing list thread for more details. Jakub Narębski suggested
this method of adding another remote to bypass this edge case,
document that & add a test for it.

Signed-off-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@xxxxxxxxx>

On Sat, Apr 8, 2017 at 11:29 AM, Jeff King <peff@xxxxxxxx> wrote:
> On Sat, Apr 08, 2017 at 09:35:04AM +0200, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason wrote:
>> Is it correct that you'd essentially want something that works like:
>>     git push --force-with-lease=master:master origin master:master
> I don't think that would do anything useful. It would reject any push
> where the remote "master" is not the same as your own master. And of
> course if they _are_ the same, then the push is a noop.

Yeah my whole suggestion is obviously dumb & useless. But I liked
Jakub's suggestion to work around this, so here's docs & a test for

According to my eyeballing of the MS VSC code this should work,
i.e. it seems to do a 'fetch' here, not a 'fetch --all':

Of course another way is to just disable autofetching:

But having two remotes allows you to have your cake & eat it too
without all the hassle of tag creation, which I've added to the docs
though for completeness.

 Documentation/git-push.txt | 37 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 t/t5533-push-cas.sh        | 29 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 66 insertions(+)

diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 1624a35888..2f2e9c078b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -210,6 +210,43 @@ or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
 this form is used).  If `<expect>` is the empty string, then the named ref
 must not already exist.
+This option interacts very badly with anything that implicitly runs
+`git fetch` on the remote to be pushed to in the background. The
+protection it offers over `--force` is ensuring that subsequent
+changes your work wasn't based on aren't clobbered, but this is
+trivially defeated if some background process is updating refs in the
+background. We don't have anything except the remote tracking info to
+go by as a heuristic for refs you're expected to have seen & are
+willing to clobber.
+If your editor or some other system is running `git fetch` in the
+background for you a way to mitigate this is to simply set up another
+	git remote add origin-push $(git config remote.origin.url)
+	git fetch origin-push
+Now when the background process runs `git fetch origin` the references
+on `origin-push` won't be updated, and thus commands like:
+	git push --force-with-lease origin
+Will fail unless you manually run `git fetch origin-push`. This method
+is of course entirely defeated by something that runs `git fetch
+--all`, in that case you'd need to either disable it or do something
+more tedious like:
+	git fetch              ;# update 'master' from remote
+	git tag base master    ;# mark our base point
+	git rebase -i master   ;# rewrite some commits
+	git push --force-with-lease=master:base master:master
+I.e. create a `base` tag for versions of the upstream code that you've
+seen and are willing to overwrite, then rewrite history, and finally
+force push changes to `master` if the remote version is still at
+`base`, regardless of what your local `remotes/origin/master` has been
+updated to in the background.
 Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
 that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
 still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
diff --git a/t/t5533-push-cas.sh b/t/t5533-push-cas.sh
index a2c9e7439f..d38ecee217 100755
--- a/t/t5533-push-cas.sh
+++ b/t/t5533-push-cas.sh
@@ -229,4 +229,33 @@ test_expect_success 'new branch already exists' '
+test_expect_success 'background updates of REMOTE can be mitigated with a non-updated REMOTE-push' '
+	rm -rf src dst &&
+	git init --bare src.bare &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf src.bare" &&
+	git clone --no-local src.bare dst &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf dst" &&
+	(
+		cd dst &&
+		test_commit G &&
+		git remote add origin-push ../src.bare &&
+		git push origin-push master:master
+	) &&
+	git clone --no-local src.bare dst2 &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf dst2" &&
+	(
+		cd dst2 &&
+		test_commit H &&
+		git push
+	) &&
+	(
+		cd dst &&
+		test_commit I &&
+		git fetch origin &&
+		test_must_fail git push --force-with-lease origin-push &&
+		git fetch origin-push &&
+		git push --force-with-lease origin-push
+	)