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Re: What means "<<" in dependencies at packages.debian.org?


On 10. 03. 19 20:14, Kent West wrote:
> The ">=" surely means "greater than or equal to", but what is "<<"?
> "less than or less than"?

"<<" means "strictly earlier (i.e. less than)". In other words, it
matches versions that sort earlier, but are not equal to the
right-hand-side. This is in contrast to "<=" that also matches versions
that are equal to the right-hand-side.

> Even more interesting is that "aptitude install python3-kivy" only shows
> one "<" (which makes sense to me as "less than"):

"<" is an obsolete version of "<=" that is no longer allowed in packages
that follow recent versions of Debian Policy.

> Also, is the answer documented somewhere? I've researched unproductively
> for several hours.

This is documented in the Debian Policy Manual:


See remark [2] on that page regarding "<" vs "<<".

Best regards

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