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Re: MBR partitioning, and content after partition table but before first partition

On 03/13/2017 02:01 AM, Jonathan Dowland wrote:
On Fri, Mar 10, 2017 at 10:00:45PM -0800, David Christensen wrote:
I'd always put a step 0) in there: is imaging what you want to do? Consider
a file-level backup with rsync (etc etc, as discussed elsewhere in this

I do imaging for system disks.  I do backups and archives for data.

So having evangelised file-level copies a few times in this thread, I found
myself wondering if I would have been better off with imaging this very
weekend. Copying a 2.1T filesystem from an internal SATA2 disk to an external
one (my regular backup drive to my once-a-month, lives off-site one) via USB3
took nearly 48 hours via "rsync -a",

2.1 TB / 48 hr / 3600 s/hr = 12.2 MB/s

I was also disappointed by the transfer rate of external USB drives on Debian. Firewire is better. eSATA is best.

I now use 3 TB Seagate ST3000DM001 desktop drives in StarTech DRW115SATBK mobile docks connected to motherboard and/or HBA SATA ports. With LUKS and a Pentium D 945 (no AES-NI), I see 40 MB/s. With LUKS and a Core i7-2600S (AES-NI), I see 220 MB/s.

and the destination ended up bigger,
possibly because one or more of the backups on the source had been using some
kind of hardlink de-dupe (I've ranted about hardlink trees being a problem in
various backup topics on -user, too...) and I didn't think to supply -S to

-S is for sparse files.

Doing a quick test, it appears that rsync copies hard linked files as if each were a different file:

2017-03-13 20:33:46 dpchrist@jesse ~/sandbox/rsync
$ cat hard-link
# Test 'rsync -a' and hard links
# $Id: hard-link,v 1.2 2017/03/14 03:33:15 dpchrist Exp $
# by David Paul Christensen dpchrist@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
# Public Domain
rm -rf hard-link-1
rm -rf hard-link-2
mkdir hard-link-1
mkdir hard-link-2
echo "hello, world!" > hard-link-1/hello.txt
ln hard-link-1/hello.txt hard-link-1/link-1.txt
ln hard-link-1/hello.txt hard-link-1/link-2.txt
ln hard-link-1/hello.txt hard-link-1/link-3.txt
ln hard-link-1/hello.txt hard-link-1/link-4.txt
ls -li hard-link-1/*
du -b hard-link-1/*
rsync -a hard-link-1/ hard-link-2
ls -li hard-link-2/*
du -b hard-link-2/*

2017-03-13 20:34:18 dpchrist@jesse ~/sandbox/rsync
$ sh hard-link
271759 -rw-r--r-- 5 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-1/hello.txt
271759 -rw-r--r-- 5 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-1/link-1.txt
271759 -rw-r--r-- 5 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-1/link-2.txt
271759 -rw-r--r-- 5 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-1/link-3.txt
271759 -rw-r--r-- 5 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-1/link-4.txt
14	hard-link-1/hello.txt
271760 -rw-r--r-- 1 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-2/hello.txt
271761 -rw-r--r-- 1 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-2/link-1.txt
271762 -rw-r--r-- 1 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-2/link-2.txt
271763 -rw-r--r-- 1 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-2/link-3.txt
271764 -rw-r--r-- 1 dpchrist dpchrist 14 Mar 13 20:34 hard-link-2/link-4.txt
14	hard-link-2/hello.txt
14	hard-link-2/link-1.txt
14	hard-link-2/link-2.txt
14	hard-link-2/link-3.txt
14	hard-link-2/link-4.txt

Is anyone aware of a utility that can walk a file system and replace identical files with hard links?

The real test will be how long an incremental catch-up will take in the future.

For new large files, the size of the files divided by 12.2 MB/s. For everything else, longer.